Flashcards in Operant/Instrumental Conditioning (Skinner) Deck (19):
An instrumental response ( a rat pressing a lever).
Refers to kind of learning in which the consequences that follow some behavior increase or decrease the likelihood of that behaviors occurrence in the future.
Something that increases the likelihood of the behavior.
If desired behavior occurs, add something pleasant.
If desired behavior occurs, take away something unpleasant.
Something that decreases the likelihood of the behavior.
Occurs when a subject believes that unpleasant or painful stimuli are inevitable and gives up trying to change the circumstances.
Reinforcing successive steps to reach a desired behavior.
Reinforcing a series of behaviors to get a reward.
Occurs if behavioral response is no longer reinforced.
Schedule of reinforcement
Pattern of reinforcing behavioral responses. There are two main types.
Reinforcement after every correct response.
Reinforcement after some correct responses. Four main types.
In conditioning, a schedule in which a reinforcer occurs only after a fixed number of responses from the subject.
Reinforcement is given an average amount of time after correct response (Low rates of response).
Fixed ratio schedules
Reinforcement is given after a fixed number of correct responses (high rate of responses).
A fixed ratio schedule is often used to pay assembly line workers because it results in fast rates of work: the more pieces of work completed, the more a worker is paid (reinforcement).
Variable ratio schedules
Reinforcement is given after an average number of correct responses (very high rates of responses (very high rate of response).
The variable ratio schedule produces a high rate of responding because of subject (pigeon or slot machine player) doesn't know which response will finally produce a payoff.
Fixed interval schedule
Means that a reinforcer occurs following the first response that occurs after a fixed interval of time.
A fixed interval schedule results in slow responding at first, but as the time for the reinforcer draws near, the response rate greatly accelerates.