Ophthalmic Pharm 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ophthalmic Pharm 2 Deck (42):
1

Reverses mydriasis caused by phenylephrine.
Causes hyperemia and mild ptosis.
Rev-eyes brand name (discontinued in 2008)

Dapiprazole

2

Dapiprazole is an _______ blocker

alpha

3

Prototypical beta-blocker. Equally inhibits beta1 and beta2.

Timolol

4

All ________ used in treating glaucoma

topical beta blockers

5

Blocks beta receptors at ciliary processes which reduces aqueous production and decreases IOP

timolol

6

Replaced epi as gold standard for tx of glaucoma

timolol

7

No pupil dilation, does not bind to melanin pigment of the iris.
Mild long term drift.
Additive with other glaucoma meds

Timolol

8

Levobunolol has slightly longer __________ than timolol

duration of action

9

___________ will cause bradycardia, respiratory distress, exacerbations of myasthenia gravis.
Contraindicated in pts with CHF, advanced COPD, bronchitis, and asthma

Nonselective beta blockers

10

Betaxolol is a _______ blocker

selective beta 1

11

Less potent. Good for pts with COPD and asthma. Contraindicated in cardiac issues.

Betaxolol

12

Carteolol has intrinsic _____ activity. Competes with _______ for binding to ____ receptors
Acts as a beta blocker because it decreases activity

sympathomimetic activity
NE
beta

13

Has most beta blocker potency and only drug with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity

carteolol

14

Pilocarpine, Ach, carbachol

cholinergic agonists

15

Use pilocarpine, ach, and carbachol for

miosis

16

Use pilocarpine for

glaucoma

17

Most popular cholinergic agonist. Long lasting. Not susceptible to acetycholinesterase.

pilocarpine

18

Used to break angle closure glaucoma. Maintains open angle until laser procedure can be performed

pilocarpine

19

Primarily used for angle closure glaucoma. Stimulates ______ receptors of __________ to cause _______. Mechanically pulls iris out of angle to allow drainage into trabecular meshwork

pilocarpine
muscarinic
sphincter
miosis

20

Ocular side effects of accommodative spasm (contraction of ciliary muscle) and miosis

pilocarpine

21

Limited ocular usage b/c quickly metabolized by acetylcholinesterase. Miosis lasts less than 25 mins

Ach

22

Miosis lasts longer, up to 24 hrs. Not susceptible to acetylcholinesterase. Used in complicated cataract surgeries. Same side effects as pilocarpine but more intense

carbachol

23

Indirect parasympathomimetics inhibit __________. So they ______ Ach at the synapse

acetylcholinesterases
Ach

24

Physostigmine, neostigmine, ecothiophate, and isoflurophate are

indirect parasympathomimetics

25

physostigmine and neostigmine are ______. Rarely used.

reversible and short acting

26

Ecothiophate and isoflurophate are _________
Too many side effects (last for days)
Accelerated _______ formation
Iris _____
Increased risk of retinal detachment
Systemic absorption causing GI sxs

Irreversible (long acting)
cataract
cysts

27

Use tropicamide and cyclopentolate for

mydriasis

28

Use homatropine for

uveitis

29

Use cyclopentolate and atropine for

cycloplegia

30

Tropicamide, cyclopentolate, atropine, and homatropine are

cholinergic antagonists

31

Good mydriasis. Inhibits active light response. Used with phenylephrine in standard eye exam

Tropicamide

32

Great mydriasis and good cycloplegia.
Used in ocular surgeries. Not used in standard eye exam b/c it lasts too long.
Accurate refraction in hyperopes. Allows for more accurate prescription.

Cyclopentolate

33

Great mydriasis and cycloplegia
Used in inflammatory uveitis and iritis
Relieves pain by reducing amount of inflammatory modulators that are mechanically forced out of vessels of iris/ciliary processes when contracting

homatropine

34

EXTREME mydriasis and cycloplegia
Lasts for 7-12 days.
NEVER used in down syndrome pts because they are very sensitive to antimuscarinics

atropine

35

Causes tachycardia, dry mouth, fever, IOP increase

atropine

36

Main antimuscarinic with serious side effects

atropine

37

Low efficacy. Has none of the side effects of atropine. Completely safe to use on glaucoma pts

tropicamide

38

Used diagnostically in dilated retinal exam

tropicamide

39

Used diagnostically in surgical dilation and cycloplegic refraction

Cyclopentolate

40

Used therapeutically in pain relief

homatropine

41

Used diagnostically and therapeutically in dilation of infants and vision therapy in children

atropine

42

Shortest mydriasis duration

tropicamide