Flashcards in Ophthalmic Pharm 2 Deck (42):
Reverses mydriasis caused by phenylephrine.
Causes hyperemia and mild ptosis.
Rev-eyes brand name (discontinued in 2008)
Dapiprazole is an _______ blocker
Prototypical beta-blocker. Equally inhibits beta1 and beta2.
All ________ used in treating glaucoma
topical beta blockers
Blocks beta receptors at ciliary processes which reduces aqueous production and decreases IOP
Replaced epi as gold standard for tx of glaucoma
No pupil dilation, does not bind to melanin pigment of the iris.
Mild long term drift.
Additive with other glaucoma meds
Levobunolol has slightly longer __________ than timolol
duration of action
___________ will cause bradycardia, respiratory distress, exacerbations of myasthenia gravis.
Contraindicated in pts with CHF, advanced COPD, bronchitis, and asthma
Nonselective beta blockers
Betaxolol is a _______ blocker
selective beta 1
Less potent. Good for pts with COPD and asthma. Contraindicated in cardiac issues.
Carteolol has intrinsic _____ activity. Competes with _______ for binding to ____ receptors
Acts as a beta blocker because it decreases activity
Has most beta blocker potency and only drug with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
Pilocarpine, Ach, carbachol
Use pilocarpine, ach, and carbachol for
Use pilocarpine for
Most popular cholinergic agonist. Long lasting. Not susceptible to acetycholinesterase.
Used to break angle closure glaucoma. Maintains open angle until laser procedure can be performed
Primarily used for angle closure glaucoma. Stimulates ______ receptors of __________ to cause _______. Mechanically pulls iris out of angle to allow drainage into trabecular meshwork
Ocular side effects of accommodative spasm (contraction of ciliary muscle) and miosis
Limited ocular usage b/c quickly metabolized by acetylcholinesterase. Miosis lasts less than 25 mins
Miosis lasts longer, up to 24 hrs. Not susceptible to acetylcholinesterase. Used in complicated cataract surgeries. Same side effects as pilocarpine but more intense
Indirect parasympathomimetics inhibit __________. So they ______ Ach at the synapse
Physostigmine, neostigmine, ecothiophate, and isoflurophate are
physostigmine and neostigmine are ______. Rarely used.
reversible and short acting
Ecothiophate and isoflurophate are _________
Too many side effects (last for days)
Accelerated _______ formation
Increased risk of retinal detachment
Systemic absorption causing GI sxs
Irreversible (long acting)
Use tropicamide and cyclopentolate for
Use homatropine for
Use cyclopentolate and atropine for
Tropicamide, cyclopentolate, atropine, and homatropine are
Good mydriasis. Inhibits active light response. Used with phenylephrine in standard eye exam
Great mydriasis and good cycloplegia.
Used in ocular surgeries. Not used in standard eye exam b/c it lasts too long.
Accurate refraction in hyperopes. Allows for more accurate prescription.
Great mydriasis and cycloplegia
Used in inflammatory uveitis and iritis
Relieves pain by reducing amount of inflammatory modulators that are mechanically forced out of vessels of iris/ciliary processes when contracting
EXTREME mydriasis and cycloplegia
Lasts for 7-12 days.
NEVER used in down syndrome pts because they are very sensitive to antimuscarinics
Causes tachycardia, dry mouth, fever, IOP increase
Main antimuscarinic with serious side effects
Low efficacy. Has none of the side effects of atropine. Completely safe to use on glaucoma pts
Used diagnostically in dilated retinal exam
Used diagnostically in surgical dilation and cycloplegic refraction
Used therapeutically in pain relief
Used diagnostically and therapeutically in dilation of infants and vision therapy in children