Ophthalmology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ophthalmology Deck (44):
1

What are the eye drops to dilate the pupil?

Tripicamide (may blurr vision for an hour)

2

What are the three key areas to look at in ophthalmoscopy?

Retina, optic nerve, macula

3

What is seen in glaucoma?

Change in colour of optic nerve
Optic nerve cupping

4

What is seen in diabetic retinopathy?

Microaneurysms
New blood vessel growth

5

What is seen in AMRD?

Trusen/yellow spots on retina

6

What is the overall structure of the visual pathway?

Eye, optic nerve, optic chiasm, lateral geniculate body, optic tract, occipital lobe

7

Where does the lateral portion of the eye see and does information cross at the chiasm?

Nasal vision
No

8

Where does medial portion of the eye see and does information cross the chiasm?

Temporal
Yes

9

What does a lesion in L optic nerve cause?

L anopia

10

What does a lesion in the optic chiasm cause?

Bitemporal hemianopia

11

What does a lesion in L optic tract occur?

Right homonymous hemianopia

12

What does damage to macula cause (central scomata/macular degeneration)?

Loss of central vision

13

First stage of ophthalmoscopy?

Red reflex (light reflecting back from retina)

14

Procedure of ophthalmoscopy?

Follow retinal vessel to reach the optic disc
Assess the optic disc: Cup, Colour, Contour
Follow the 4 vascular bundles (each has artery and vein)
Ask patient to look up, down, to left and right (follow eye and look for peripheral changes)
Ask patient to look directly at light to visualise the macula

15

What are the 3 overall layers of the eye?

Fibrous, vascular and inner layer

16

What makes up the fibrous layer?

Sclera (white part) and cornea (transparent and central, refracts light)

17

What makes up the vascular layer?

Choroid (nourishes retina), ciliary body (encircles eye, made of ciliary muscle and ciliary processes), iris (colour part with hole in middle for pupil)

18

What happens when the ciliary smooth muscles contract?

Accomodation for near vision: Less tension in the zonula fibres
Lens bulges

19

What is the ciliary body attached to?

The lens via zonular fibres (make up the suspensory ligament)

20

What happens when the ciliary muscle relaxes?

For distance vision
More tension in the zonula fibres pulling the lens flatter

21

Main function of the ciliary body?

Lens shape
Production of aqueous humour

22

What are the two types of fibres in the iris and innervation?

Circular: Parasympathetic (contraction)
Radial: Sympathetic (dilation)

23

What is the anterior chamber?

Between the cornea and iris

24

What makes up the inner layer of the eye?

The retina (neural layer and pigment layer)

25

What does the fovea of the macula contain?

High concentration of cones (light sensitive receptors)

26

What is the optic disc?

Area where the optic nerve enters the retina (no light detecting cells - blindspot)
Central retinal artery also enters here

27

Where is posterior chamber?

Between iris and lens/suspensory ligaments

28

What is the flow of aqueous humour?

Secreted into posterior chamber flowing via pupil into anterior chamber and absorbed by canal of schlemm/scleral venous sinus (encircles the eye at the iris corneal junction)

29

What happens in glaucoma?

Raised intraocular pressure due to dysfunction of the aqueous drainage system

30

Where is the vitreous chamber?

Behind the lens to retina

31

What do rods detect?

black and white

32

What do cones detect?

colour

33

What is the innervation of the extraocular muslces?

LR 6
SO 4
AO 3

34

What muscles move the abducted eye up and down?

up SR
down IR

35

What muscles move the adducted eye up and down?

up IO
down SO

36

CN3 palsy?

(doesn't innervate LR or SO)
Eye down and out, eyelid down (levator ani)

37

CN4 palsy?

Innervates SO
Cant depress the adducted eye
Eye sits up a little and head tilted away affected side

38

CN6 palsy?

Innervates LR
Adducted eye/cross eye

39

What is keratitis?

Inflammation of the cornea

40

What is HSV keratitis and what does it cause?

Inflammation of the cornea due to HSV
Causes a dendritic ulcer on the cornea

41

How do you diagnose a dendritic ulcer and how do you treat?

Fluorosccein drops will stain the lesion
Treat with acyclovir (avoid steroids as can cause corneal melt)

42

When to suspect orbital cellulitis and what to do?

Painful inflammation of the orbit, fever, lid swelling, decreased eye movements
Sinus CT and IV abx

43

`What is hutchisons sign and does it indicate?

Shingles on nose tip meaning involvement of the nasociliary branch of trigeminal nerve which supplies the globe thus eye likely to be affected
Get ophthalmology review

44

What is the fundus of the eye?

Interior surface of the eye