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Flashcards in Oral Deck (60):
1

Endosymbiotic theory

Posits that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living. Then engulfed or internal parasites.

2

Heterotrophs

Organisms that must eat for food

3

Autotrophs

Organisms that make their own food

4

Tannin

Bitter tasting substance found in the vacuole: protection.

E.g. Pine trees

5

Autolysis

Self destruction of ageing cells

6

Tay-Sachs

Disease caused by defective gene that affects lysosomes so fat cannot be broken down.

Result: slurred speech, muscle cramps.

7

Fluid mosaic model

- it is fluid
- resembles a mosaic due to proteins

8

Antigens

Self-recognition

9

Channels for water

Aquaporins

10

Passive transport protein

Valinomycin allowing K+ ions through.

11

Tonoplast

Defines the vacuole

12

Exocytosis example

Acetylcholine: neurotransmitter

13

Phagocytosis example

Amoebas and white blood cells

14

Pinocytosis example

Human egg cell takes up nutrients from surrounding cells

15

Red blood cell in hypotonic solution

Haemolysis

16

Red blood cell in hypertonic solution

Crenate

17

Plant cell in hypotonic solution

Turgid

18

Plant cell in hypertonic solution

Plasmolysis

19

Mitochondria inner membrane folds

Cristae

20

Mitochondria cytoplasm

Matrix (enzymes for respiration)

21

Aerobic respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 => 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP's/glucose

22

Anaerobic respiration in yeast

C6H12O6 => 2CO2 + 2 ethanol + 2 ATP's/glucose

23

Anaerobic respiration in muscle

C6H12O6 => 2 lactic acid + 2 ATP's/glucose

24

Karyotype

Picture of chromosomes arranged in pairs according to size and centromere position.

25

Mutation

Change in the structure of a gene

26

Sickle celled anaemia

Cause: substitution of single amino acid.
Consequence: when low O2, red blood cells aggregate into long rods and may block capillaries.

27

Albinism

Defective gene resulting in the malfunction of melanin

28

Cystic fibrosis

Defective gene resulting from base triplet deletion.
Consequence: mucus becomes sticky, air passages blocked

29

Huntington's

Inherited defect in single gene
Consequence: functional abilities gradual worsen

Dominant

30

Symbols

Boys boxes
Girls circles

31

Plants meiosis location

Anthers, ovaries

32

Animals meiosis location

Ovaries, testes

33

Animals mitosis location

Everywhere, hair, nails

34

Plants mitosis location

Meristems, tips of roots/shoots

35

Alpha 1 antitrypsin

Cystic fibrosis treatment

36

Factor 8

Blood clotting protein

37

Bovine somatotropin

Hormone increasing milk production

38

Transgenic plants example

Nitrogen fixation in wheat, no more fertilisers

Flavr-Savr tomatoes: mRNA molecule causing ripening is blocked

39

Homologous structure example

Pentadactyl limb

40

Analogous structure example

Wings of birds and insects

41

Myxomatosis

Mutant gene causes rabbits stay out of infested burrows
Rabbits code enzyme deactivating the virus

42

DDT, warfarin

Insects became resistant
Rats became resistant to anti coagulant

43

Species

Group of similar organisms that can breed together in nature to provide fertile, viable offspring

44

Speciation

Lineage-splitting event that produces two or more separate species

45

Allopathic speciation

(vs sympatric speciation)

Speciation from physical separation

46

Carbon dioxide effect on plants

Less cardenolides/tannins in milkweed (previous protection against monarch caterpillar)

47

Foramen magnum

Placed more centrally under skill so skull is balanced on spine

48

Spine shape

S shape to keep head and torso above centre of gravity.

49

Knee joint

Buttress of bone: lateral condyle, stops sideways deflection of thigh muscles

50

Femur

Longer and angled inwards so knees almost touch

51

Shape of foot

Change to become platform.
Arch for shock absorber effect.

52

Sagittal crest

Attachment for jaw muscles disappears

53

Zygomatic arch

Lightens off as face becomes flatter

54

Prognathism

Decrease in prognathism: jutting forward of bottom of the face

55

Diastema

Disappearance of this: gap between incisors and canines.

56

Australopethicans: tools

Simple tools

57

Homo habilis tools

Oldowan tool culture

Striking of another to remove flakes

58

Homo erectus tools

Acheulian tool culture

Tear drop face: bi-face

59

Homo neanderthal tools

Mousterian tool culture

More refined than earlier Acheulian

60

Homo sapiens tools

Upper palaeolithic tool culture

Production of flint tools and punch blades