Flashcards in Oral Deck (60):
Posits that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living. Then engulfed or internal parasites.
Organisms that must eat for food
Organisms that make their own food
Bitter tasting substance found in the vacuole: protection.
E.g. Pine trees
Self destruction of ageing cells
Disease caused by defective gene that affects lysosomes so fat cannot be broken down.
Result: slurred speech, muscle cramps.
Fluid mosaic model
- it is fluid
- resembles a mosaic due to proteins
Channels for water
Passive transport protein
Valinomycin allowing K+ ions through.
Defines the vacuole
Amoebas and white blood cells
Human egg cell takes up nutrients from surrounding cells
Red blood cell in hypotonic solution
Red blood cell in hypertonic solution
Plant cell in hypotonic solution
Plant cell in hypertonic solution
Mitochondria inner membrane folds
Matrix (enzymes for respiration)
C6H12O6 + 6O2 => 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP's/glucose
Anaerobic respiration in yeast
C6H12O6 => 2CO2 + 2 ethanol + 2 ATP's/glucose
Anaerobic respiration in muscle
C6H12O6 => 2 lactic acid + 2 ATP's/glucose
Picture of chromosomes arranged in pairs according to size and centromere position.
Change in the structure of a gene
Sickle celled anaemia
Cause: substitution of single amino acid.
Consequence: when low O2, red blood cells aggregate into long rods and may block capillaries.
Defective gene resulting in the malfunction of melanin
Defective gene resulting from base triplet deletion.
Consequence: mucus becomes sticky, air passages blocked
Inherited defect in single gene
Consequence: functional abilities gradual worsen
Plants meiosis location
Animals meiosis location
Animals mitosis location
Everywhere, hair, nails
Plants mitosis location
Meristems, tips of roots/shoots
Alpha 1 antitrypsin
Cystic fibrosis treatment
Blood clotting protein
Hormone increasing milk production
Transgenic plants example
Nitrogen fixation in wheat, no more fertilisers
Flavr-Savr tomatoes: mRNA molecule causing ripening is blocked
Homologous structure example
Analogous structure example
Wings of birds and insects
Mutant gene causes rabbits stay out of infested burrows
Rabbits code enzyme deactivating the virus
Insects became resistant
Rats became resistant to anti coagulant
Group of similar organisms that can breed together in nature to provide fertile, viable offspring
Lineage-splitting event that produces two or more separate species
(vs sympatric speciation)
Speciation from physical separation
Carbon dioxide effect on plants
Less cardenolides/tannins in milkweed (previous protection against monarch caterpillar)
Placed more centrally under skill so skull is balanced on spine
S shape to keep head and torso above centre of gravity.
Buttress of bone: lateral condyle, stops sideways deflection of thigh muscles
Longer and angled inwards so knees almost touch
Shape of foot
Change to become platform.
Arch for shock absorber effect.
Attachment for jaw muscles disappears
Lightens off as face becomes flatter
Decrease in prognathism: jutting forward of bottom of the face
Disappearance of this: gap between incisors and canines.
Homo habilis tools
Oldowan tool culture
Striking of another to remove flakes
Homo erectus tools
Acheulian tool culture
Tear drop face: bi-face
Homo neanderthal tools
Mousterian tool culture
More refined than earlier Acheulian