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Level 2 Biology > Organelles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organelles Deck (21):
1

Define Organelle

Organelles are specialised parts of a cell that have specific functions.

2

Define Cell Membrane

The cell membrane encloses the cytoplasm of the cell and controls what enters and exits the cell.

3

Define Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm is a jelly like, nutrient rich substance where organelles are located. This is also where many of the reactions of the cell occur, like glycolysis.

4

Define Nucleus

Often called the 'control centre,' the nucleus contains the DNA which controls and regulates the function of the cell. Within the nucleus is the nucleolus, which produces the RNA used in protein synthesis.

5

Define Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion is responsible for producing ATP from glucose and oxygen during aerobic respiration.

6

Define Endopalsmic Reticulum

The ER is a series of tubes bound to the nuclear membrane, and can be categorised into two seperate types:
Rough ER - Studded with ribosomes and involved in protein production
Smooth ER - Lacking ribosomes and involved in the synthesis of lipids

7

Define Ribosome

Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis, and can either be attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum or float freely in the cytoplasm of the cell.

8

Define Golgi Body

The Golgi Body is the 'packaging centre' of the cell. Molecules synthesised by the ER are transferred to the Golgi Body, where they are folded and joined to other molecules before being packaged into a vesicle and sent out of the cell.

9

Define Lysosome

The lysosome contained digestive enzymes which can break down unwanted molecules within the cell, such as worn out organelles or foreign bacteria engulfed by the white blood cells.

10

Define Cristae

The complex series of folds within the mitochondria.

11

Define Vacuole

A vacuole is a membrane bound sac filled with fluid. Both animal and plant cells contain a vacuole, however this is considerably larger in a plant cell and takes up most of the cell.

12

Define Chloroplast

The chloroplast is an organelle containing chlorophyll and is where photosynthesis occurs.

13

Define Chlorophyll

The compound that makes plants green.

14

Define Cell Wall

The cell wall is the main defining feature between an animal and plant cell. This provides structure to the plant and is outside the cell membrane.

15

What is the cell membrane made of?

A phospholipid bilayer

16

What is the phospholipid bilayer made of?

1. Hydrophobic (water hating) tails made of fatty acids
2. Hydrophilic (water loving) heads made if glycerol phosphate

17

Describe the inside of mitochondria

Within the mitochondria is a complex series of folds, called cristae. These increase the surface area of the inner membrane, where the Electron Transfer Chain occurs. In between the cristae is the mitochondrial matrix. This is where the Krebs Cycle occurs.

18

What features do plant cells have that animal cells do not?

1. Cell Wall
2. Chloroplasts
3. Large Vacuole

19

Where can the plasmodesmata be found in a plant cell?

In the special pores in the cell wall.

20

What does the plasmodesmata do?

The plasmodesmata allow cell to cell communication pathways to exist between cells.

21

What features do plant and animal cells have in common?

1. Nucleus
2. Mitochondria
3. Cell Membrane
4. Endoplasmic Reticulum
5. Golgi Body
6. Ribosomes