Organelles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organelles Deck (14):
1

Plasma membrane

Selective barrier that regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell

2

Ribosomes

free-flowing or attached to ER
site of protein synthesis- link amino acids together to form proteins

3

Mitochondria

major sites of ATP production in eukaryotic cells

4

Golgi Apparatus

Close to ER
Modifies proteins and lipids
sorting and packaging of proteins for secretion

5

ER

RER- Transports proteins to various sites within the cells, has ribosomes attached
SER- Involved in the manufacture of substances, detoxifying harmful products and the storage and release of substances

6

Chloroplast

Photosynthesise to produce energy and sugar for the cell.
Carry out complex process of converting sunlight energy to chemical energy

7

Lysosome

Break down waste materials and cellular debris
Digest excess and worn out organelles, food particles and engulfed viruses, bacteria or foreign material
Able to digest the cell itself under some circumstances (apoptosis)

8

Nucleus and nucleolus

Nucleus- DNA codes for protein synthesis which controls the structure and function of the cell
Controls DNA replication
Repair of genetic material
Control metabolic processes of cell by regulating which genes are expressed
initiation of gene expression
Nucleolus- produces rRNA

9

Centrioles

Helps with cell division in animal cells
helps in the formation of the spindle fibres that separate the chromosomes during mitosis
near the nucleus, in the centrosome

10

Cilia and flagella

enclosed in a thin extension of the plasma membrane outside of the cell
Enables movement of cell
Creates water current to bring substances necessary for life past sessile, or fixed, eukaryotic animals

11

Cytoskeleton

Forms the 3D structural framework of eukaryotic cells to supply support and strength for the cell and determine cell shape, enable cell mobility and facilitate movement of organelles

12

Cellulose cell wall

provides strength, support and rigidity to the cell and prevents over-expansion of cell contents

13

Plastids

Site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cell
Chloroplast- photosynthesis
Leucoplast- stores starch (rice, wheat, potato)
Chromoplast- stores pigment (plants that are brightly coloured)

14

Vacuole

Stores wastes, mineral salts, nutrients, water and pigments. Also involved in waste disposal. Help maintain plant turgor