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Flashcards in Organelles Deck (34):
1

Cytosol

Site of chemical reactions and synthesis of cellular protein.

2

Nucleus

DNA and mRNA replication.

3

Nucleolus

Production of ribosomes.

4

What is chromatin?

Condensed chromosomes.

5

Ribosomes

Protein factories.

6

Unbound ribosomes

Produces proteins that will be used in the cell.

7

bound ribosomes

Produces proteins to be exported from the cell.

8

what makes up the endomembrane system?

Endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear membrane, Golgi apparatus, lysosmes and vacuoles.

9

What are the functions of the endomembrane system

Synthesizes and modifies proteins and lipids.

10

Endoplasmic reticulum

Protein synthesis and sorting.
Produces vesicles.

11

Rough ER

Produces polypeptides into proteins.
Carbohydrates are added to proteins aka glycoprotein.

12

Smooth ER

Produces lipids (fatty acids, steroids, polysaccharides and sex hormones).
Detoxification of drugs and alcohol.

13

Golgi apparatus

FedEx of the cell.
cis side is closest to smooth ER (receiving) side.
trans face is closest to the plasma membrane (exporting).
Produces vesicles.

14

Lysosomes

Double membrane.
Only in animal cells.
Contains digestive enzymes.
Breaks down and recycles damaged organelles.

15

Vacuoles

Plants have central vacuoles to store water.

16

Osmoregulation

Regulation of solute concentrations and water balance.

17

Vesicles

Membranous sacs move through the cytoplasm.

18

Peroxisomes

Creates hydrogen peroxide by using enzymes that transfer hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms.
Found in the liver to detoxify alcohol.

19

Mitochondria

Produces ATP (energy currency of the cell).
It has its own DNA (coming from mamsita) and ribosomes.

20

Chloroplasts

Converts sunlight into ATP through photosynthesis.
Has double membrane.
Has its own DNA and ribosomes.

21

Which organelles have double membranes?

Chloroplasts and lysosomes.

22

Which organelles produce vesicles?

ER and GA

23

Which organelles have their own DNA and ribosomes?

Chloroplasts and mitochondria.

24

What is the Endosymbiosis theory?

Ancient eukaryotic cells engulfed mitochondria and/or chloroplasts. (Explains origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts.)

25

Cytoskeleton

Only in Eukaryotic cells.
1) microtubules
2) microfilament
3) intermediate filaments

26

microtubules

Biggest. A hollow tube.
Made of tubulin.
Shape, cell division and motility.

27

microfilament

Thinnest.
Made up of 2 strands of actin.
Muscle contraction, amoeboid movement and cytoplasmic streaming in plants.

28

intermediate filaments

Smallest.
Made up of coiled proteins (keratin).
Cell anchor.

29

Flagella and cilia

Function in cell motility.
9 outer and 2 inner arrangement.

30

Cell junctions in animals

Tight junctions- net/seal.
Desmosomes- hold cells together like a screw.
Gap junctions- cytoplasmic channels between cells.

31

Cell junctions in plants

Plasmodesmata- cytoplasmic channels between cells.
And cell wall.

32

Which organelles are primarily involved in synthesizing molecules needed by cells?

Ribosomes, RER and SER.

33

What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Placement of DNA.
Euk= bounded by double membrane in nucleus.
Prok= no membrane, in nucleoid.

34

mRNA

Transcript of DNA instructions.