Flashcards in Organelles Deck (34):
Site of chemical reactions and synthesis of cellular protein.
DNA and mRNA replication.
Production of ribosomes.
What is chromatin?
Produces proteins that will be used in the cell.
Produces proteins to be exported from the cell.
what makes up the endomembrane system?
Endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear membrane, Golgi apparatus, lysosmes and vacuoles.
What are the functions of the endomembrane system
Synthesizes and modifies proteins and lipids.
Protein synthesis and sorting.
Produces polypeptides into proteins.
Carbohydrates are added to proteins aka glycoprotein.
Produces lipids (fatty acids, steroids, polysaccharides and sex hormones).
Detoxification of drugs and alcohol.
FedEx of the cell.
cis side is closest to smooth ER (receiving) side.
trans face is closest to the plasma membrane (exporting).
Only in animal cells.
Contains digestive enzymes.
Breaks down and recycles damaged organelles.
Plants have central vacuoles to store water.
Regulation of solute concentrations and water balance.
Membranous sacs move through the cytoplasm.
Creates hydrogen peroxide by using enzymes that transfer hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms.
Found in the liver to detoxify alcohol.
Produces ATP (energy currency of the cell).
It has its own DNA (coming from mamsita) and ribosomes.
Converts sunlight into ATP through photosynthesis.
Has double membrane.
Has its own DNA and ribosomes.
Which organelles have double membranes?
Chloroplasts and lysosomes.
Which organelles produce vesicles?
ER and GA
Which organelles have their own DNA and ribosomes?
Chloroplasts and mitochondria.
What is the Endosymbiosis theory?
Ancient eukaryotic cells engulfed mitochondria and/or chloroplasts. (Explains origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts.)
Only in Eukaryotic cells.
3) intermediate filaments
Biggest. A hollow tube.
Made of tubulin.
Shape, cell division and motility.
Made up of 2 strands of actin.
Muscle contraction, amoeboid movement and cytoplasmic streaming in plants.
Made up of coiled proteins (keratin).
Flagella and cilia
Function in cell motility.
9 outer and 2 inner arrangement.
Cell junctions in animals
Tight junctions- net/seal.
Desmosomes- hold cells together like a screw.
Gap junctions- cytoplasmic channels between cells.
Cell junctions in plants
Plasmodesmata- cytoplasmic channels between cells.
And cell wall.
Which organelles are primarily involved in synthesizing molecules needed by cells?
Ribosomes, RER and SER.
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Placement of DNA.
Euk= bounded by double membrane in nucleus.
Prok= no membrane, in nucleoid.