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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (17):
1

define hydrocarbon

compound made up of only hydrogen and carbon

2

define saturated

only single carbon - carbon bonds

3

define unsaturated

double or triple carbon - carbon bonds

4

with enough oxygen, alkanes burn to give..?

carbon dioxide and water

5

what are the products of incomplete combustion

water and carbon monoxide/carbon

6

why is carbon monoxide dangerous

it is odorless and toxic - combines with haemoglobin in the blood, preventing it from carrying oxygen

7

complete the formula for the substitution reaction of methane with bromine in the presence of UV light

CH4 + Br2 --> CH3Br + HBr

8

define homologous series

a family of molecules with assimilate chemical properties and show a trend in physical properties

9

what are reactions of alkenes known as?

addition reactions

10

what catalyst do you need when alkenes are paired together with hydrogen; what is the end product?

nickel;
alkanes

11

what forms when water is added to alkenes?
what is needed for this reaction to happen?

alcohol eg ethanol
hot steam under pressure and phosphoric acid catalyst

12

what conditions are needed for production of ethanol in an addition reaction

300C temperature; 60-70 atmospheres pressure; phosphoric acid catalyst

13

describe the conditions needed for fermentation of sugars to make ethanol

temperature 30C; anaerobic

14

why can't you make pure alcohol by fermentation?

yeast is killed if mixture is more than 15% ethanol
enzymes in yeast denatured If temperature is too high

15

list some advantages of hydration of ethene over fermentation

• good for countries with large crude oil reserves
• continuous and rapid process
• almost 100% pure alcohol as a result

16

list some advantages of fermentation over the hydration of ethene

• renewable resources like sugar beet or sugar cane
• low temperature required

17

how can ethanol be converted into ethene?

• ethanol vapor is passed over hot aluminum oxide catalyst, water is removed to produce ethene