Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (17):
compound made up of only hydrogen and carbon
only single carbon - carbon bonds
double or triple carbon - carbon bonds
with enough oxygen, alkanes burn to give..?
carbon dioxide and water
what are the products of incomplete combustion
water and carbon monoxide/carbon
why is carbon monoxide dangerous
it is odorless and toxic - combines with haemoglobin in the blood, preventing it from carrying oxygen
complete the formula for the substitution reaction of methane with bromine in the presence of UV light
CH4 + Br2 --> CH3Br + HBr
define homologous series
a family of molecules with assimilate chemical properties and show a trend in physical properties
what are reactions of alkenes known as?
what catalyst do you need when alkenes are paired together with hydrogen; what is the end product?
what forms when water is added to alkenes?
what is needed for this reaction to happen?
alcohol eg ethanol
hot steam under pressure and phosphoric acid catalyst
what conditions are needed for production of ethanol in an addition reaction
300C temperature; 60-70 atmospheres pressure; phosphoric acid catalyst
describe the conditions needed for fermentation of sugars to make ethanol
temperature 30C; anaerobic
why can't you make pure alcohol by fermentation?
yeast is killed if mixture is more than 15% ethanol
enzymes in yeast denatured If temperature is too high
list some advantages of hydration of ethene over fermentation
• good for countries with large crude oil reserves
• continuous and rapid process
• almost 100% pure alcohol as a result
list some advantages of fermentation over the hydration of ethene
• renewable resources like sugar beet or sugar cane
• low temperature required