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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (83):
1

What are hydrocarbons?

Any compound that is formed from carbon and hydrogen atoms only

2

Is an alkane a hydrocarbon?

Yes

3

Give the general formula for an alkane.

CnH2n+2

4

Define the term homologous series.

A group of organic compounds that react in similar ways

5

In terms of alkanes, what is meant by saturated compound?

Each carbon atom forms four single covalent bonds

6

List the first five prefixes used for alkanes, alkenes, carboxylic acids and alcohols.

Meth-
Eth-
Prop-
But-
Pent-

7

What is the suffix for an alkane?

-ane

8

What is the suffix for an alkene?

-ene

9

What is the suffix for an alcohol?

-anol

10

What is the suffix for a carboxylic acid?

-anoic acid

11

True or false?

Properties of hydrocarbons change as the chain gets longer.

True

12

Define the term viscous.

'Gloopy'

13

What is meant by 'more volatile'?

Turns into a gas at lower temperature

14

Define the term flammable.

Easy to ignite

15

True or false?

Shorter hydrocarbon chains are more viscous, less volatile and less flammable.

False
Less viscous, more volatile, more flammable

16

Define the term combustion.

The process of burning something

17

Give the word equation for complete combustion of a hydrocarbon.

Hydrocarbon + Oxygen -> Carbon dioxide + Water (+ energy)

18

Why are hydrocarbons used as fuels?

They produce lots of energy during complete combustion

19

What is crude oil?

A fossil fuel
A mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly alkanes

20

True or false?

Crude oils are non-renewable.

True

21

How is crude oil formed?

Remains of plants and animals, mainly plankton, that died millions of years ago are buried in mud and the high temperature and pressure causes the remains to turn to crude oil

22

How is crude oil separated?

Fractional distillation

23

List 3 uses for crude oil.

Fuel for most modern transport (diesel oil, kerosene, heavy fuel oil, LPG)
Feedstock to make new compounds for use in things like polymers, solvents, lubricants and detergents
Form different homologous series

24

What is meant by feedstock?

Raw material to supply or fuel a machine or industrial process

25

What is cracking?

The splitting up of long-chain hydrocarbons

26

Why is cracking important?

Because short-chain hydrocarbons are more useful so in higher demand and cracking makes long-chain hydrocarbons into short-chain ones

27

Cracking is a thermal decomposition. What is meant by this?

It breaks the molecules down by heating them

28

Name the two types of cracking.

Catalytic cracking
Steam cracking

29

Describe the process of catalytic cracking.

- Heat a long-chain hydrocarbon in order to vaporise it
- Pass the vapour over a hot powdered aluminium oxide catalyst
- Allow the long-chain molecules split apart on the surface of the specks of the catalyst

30

Describe the process of steam cracking.

- Vaporise a long-chain hydrocarbon
- Mix them with steam
- Heat them to a very high temperature

31

What are the products of cracking?

Alkanes
Alkenes

32

In terms of alkenes, what is meant by unsaturated compound?

They have a double carbon bond

33

True or false?

Alkenes are far more reactive than alkanes.

True

34

Why are alkenes more reactive than alkanes?

Because the double bond can split and create bonds with other atoms

35

Give the general formula for an alkene.

CnH2n

36

Give the word equation for incomplete combustion of an alkene.

Alkene + Oxygen -> Carbon monoxide + Carbon dioxide + Water (+ energy)

37

What are the results of incomplete combustion compared to complete combustion?

A smoky yellow flame
A lot less energy released

38

Define the term functional group.

A group of atoms in a molecule that determines how the molecule typically reacts

39

What is the functional group of an alkene?

C=C

40

How does an alkene typically react?

Via an addition reaction
The double bond opens up and a new atom bonds to each single bond

41

What is the addition reaction between hydrogen and an alkene known as?

Hydrogenation

42

What does an alkene reacted with hydrogen form?

The equivalent alkane

43

True or false?

Hydrogenation requires a catalyst.

True

44

Can alkenes react with halogens?

Yes

45

How can bromine water test for alkenes?

If it is added to an alkene, the bromine will add across the double bond and change the water from bright orange to colourless

46

What is formed when alkenes react with steam?

Alcohols

47

What are plastics made of?

Long-chain molecules called polymers
The monomers are often alkenes

48

How are polymers formed?

A polymerisation reaction that joins lots of monomers

49

What are the conditions usually needed for a polymerisation reaction?

High pressure
A catalyst

50

What is addition polymerisation?

When lots of unsaturated monomer molecules (alkenes) open up their double bond and join together

51

What is the standard way of representing the structure of a polymer?

A repeating unit

52

True or false?

An addition polymer contains a different type and amount of atoms than the monomers that formed it.

False
They contain exactly the same type and amount as the monomers that formed it

53

How are polymers named?

'Poly' is put in front of the name of the monomer which is put in brackets
E.g. poly(ethene)

54

What is the functional group of an alcohol?

-OH

55

Give the general formula of an alcohol.

CnH2n+1OH

56

List the properties of alcohols.

Flammable
Soluble in water
Neutral pH
Can react with sodium

57

What is formed when alcohols are oxidised?

A carboxylic acid

58

Name 2 uses of alcohols.

Solvents
Fuels

59

How is ethanol usually made?

Fermentation

60

Give the word equation for fermentation.

(yeast)
Sugar -------> Ethanol + Carbon dioxide

61

What are the ideal conditions for fermentation.

Temperature of 37°C
In a slightly acidic solution
Anaerobic conditions

62

What is the functional group of a carboxylic acid?

-COOH

63

What would the displayed formula of the carboxylic acid functional group look like?

O=C-OH

64

What is produced when a carboxylic acid reacts with a carbonate?

Salt
Water
Carbon dioxide

65

What is the suffix of the salt formed when a carboxylic acid reacts with a carbonate?

-anoate

66

True or false?

Carboxylic acids can dissolve in water.

True

67

Why are only weak acidic solutions formed when a carboxylic acid dissolves in water?

Because it doesn't ionise completely

68

What are esters made from?

An alcohol and a carboxylic acid

69

What is the functional group of an ester?

-COO-

70

Give the word equation for formation of an ester.

Alcohol + Carboxylic acid -> Ester + Water

71

What is usually used in the reaction to form an ester?

An acid catalyst

72

Name an ester.

Ethyl ethanoate

73

What does condensation polymerisation involve?

Monomers with different functional groups

74

Why is it called condensation polymerisation?

For each new bond that forms between the monomers, a small molecule (e.g. water) is lost

75

Compare the number of types of monomers in addition polymerisation and condensation polymerisation.

Addition polymerisation only uses one type containing a C=C bond
Condensation polymerisation uses two monomer types containing two of the same functional groups OR one monomer type with two different functional groups

76

Compare the number of products in addition polymerisation and condensation polymerisation.

Addition polymerisation forms only one product
Condensation polymerisation forms two types of product - the polymer and a small molecule (e.g. water)

77

Compare the functional groups used in addition polymerisation and condensation polymerisation.

A carbon-carbon double bond in the monomer is involved in addition polymerisation
Condensation polymerisation involves two reactive groups on each monomer

78

Name the smallest and simplest amino acid.

Glycine

79

List 3 naturally occurring polymers.

Proteins
DNA
Simple sugars

80

What are the polymers formed from amino acids known as?

Polypeptides

81

True or false?

One or more long chains of polypeptides are known as proteins.

True

82

What polymers are DNA made from?

Nucleotide polymers

83

Give 2 examples of large polymers formed from simple sugars.

Cellulose
Starch