Organic Chemistry Chapter 8: Carboxylic Acids Flashcards Preview

MCAT Gen Chem and O Chem > Organic Chemistry Chapter 8: Carboxylic Acids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Chapter 8: Carboxylic Acids Deck (17)
1

Suffix

-oic acid

2

Suffix for salts

-oate

3

Suffix for dicarboxylic acids

-dioic acids

4

Boiling points

high because of hydrogen binding

5

How is acidity enhanced?

resonance between its oxygen atoms
subsituents that are electron-donating

6

How can the acidity of c.a. be decreased?

substituents that are electron-donating

7

How can c.a. be made?

oxidation of primary alcohols or aldehydes using an oxidizing agent like potassium permanganate

8

What is a common reaction for carboxylic acids?

Nucleophilic acyl substitution

9

What happens in nucleophilic acyl substitution?

- Nucleophile attacks the electrophile carbonyl carbon
- Carbonyl reforms, kicking off leaving group

10

If nucleophile is ammonia or an amine?

Then an amide is formed

11

If the nucleophile is an alcohol?

Then an ester is formed.

12

If the nucleophile is another carboxylic acid?

an anhydride is formed

13

How can c.a. be reduced to a primary alcohol?

with a strong reducing agent, such as LiAlH4

14

Can NaBH4 reduce c.a.?

No - not strong enough

15

What happens to beta- carboxylic acids and beta-keto acids when heated?

they undergo spontaneous decarboxylation when heated, losing a carbon as carbon dioxide. This reaction proceeds via a six-membered cyclic intermediate.

16

What happens when you mix long-chain carboxylic acids with a strong base?

a salt we call soap - process = saponification

17

Micelle

dissolves nonpolar organic molecules in its interior, and can be solvated with water due to its exterior shell of hydrophilic groups.