Organic chemistry - Petroleum and Alkanes & Alkenes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic chemistry - Petroleum and Alkanes & Alkenes Deck (30):
1

What functional group is -COOH?

carboxyl

2

Which homologous series does the C=C functional group belong to?

alkene

3

What is the name of the functional group present in alcohols?

hydroxyl

4

Do alkanes have a functional group?

No

5

What functional group is present in the organic compound formed when an alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid?

COO or ester

6

What are hydrocarbons?

organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon ONLY

7

State one common characteristic among members of a homologous series?

same functional group OR
similar chemical properties OR
gradual change in physical properties from one member to the next OR
differ from one member to the next by a -CH2 unit OR
share the same general formula

8

How many carbon atoms does an organic compound have if its name begins with the prefix 'prop-'?

three

9

What homologous series has its members' name end with 'oic acid'?

carboxylic acid

10

What method/technique is used to separate the fractions of petroleum?

fractional distillation

11

Which fraction of petroleum is used for paving road surfaces?

bitumen

12

Which petroleum fraction has a lower boiling point - kerosene or naphtha?

naphtha

13

Which petroleum fraction is used as chemical feedstock?

naphtha

14

What is the chemical formula for ethane?

C2H6

15

Why are alkanes known as 'saturated hydrocarbons'?

they contain only single C-C covalent bonds

16

What are isomers?

compounds with the same molecular formula (reject chemical formula) but different structural formula

17

Why do the the mp/bp of alkanes increase down the homologous series (i.e. as molecular size of alkane increase)?

stronger intermolecular forces of attraction between alkane molecules

18

How does the viscosity of alkanes change?

Becomes more viscous as the alkane molecular size increase.

19

What are the products of complete combustion of alkanes?

carbon dioxide and water/water vapour

20

Why are alkanes generally unreactive?

strong C-C and C-H bonds which are difficult to break (need relatively large input of energy to break bonds)

21

Name all the products in the final mixture when methane reacts with chlorine under UV light?

chloromethane,
dichloromethane,
trichloromethane,
tetrachloromethane and
hydrogen chloride (reject hydrochloric acid)

22

What is the general formula for alkenes?

CnH2n

23

Why are alkenes known as 'unsaturated hydrocarbons'?

contain one or more C=C [or carbon-carbon double bond] (reject 'carbon double bond')

24

State the catalysts used in catalytic cracking.

aluminium oxide or silicon(IV) oxide (or silicon dioxide)

25

What are the possible products of catalytic cracking?

smaller alkenes and smaller alkanes and hydrogen gas

26

What are the conditions for hydrogenation of alkenes?

200 degree Celsius and Ni catalyst

27

What is the product formed when pentene undergoes hydrogenation?

pentane

28

What is a major application of hydrogenation?

to make margarine from vegetable oil

29

What observation is seen when an alkene undergoes bromination?

reddish-brown bromine turns colourless (is decolourised)

30

What is the product formed when alkenes undergo hydration?

alcohol