Flashcards in Organic chemistry - Petroleum and Alkanes & Alkenes Deck (30):
What functional group is -COOH?
Which homologous series does the C=C functional group belong to?
What is the name of the functional group present in alcohols?
Do alkanes have a functional group?
What functional group is present in the organic compound formed when an alcohol reacts with a carboxylic acid?
COO or ester
What are hydrocarbons?
organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon ONLY
State one common characteristic among members of a homologous series?
same functional group OR
similar chemical properties OR
gradual change in physical properties from one member to the next OR
differ from one member to the next by a -CH2 unit OR
share the same general formula
How many carbon atoms does an organic compound have if its name begins with the prefix 'prop-'?
What homologous series has its members' name end with 'oic acid'?
What method/technique is used to separate the fractions of petroleum?
Which fraction of petroleum is used for paving road surfaces?
Which petroleum fraction has a lower boiling point - kerosene or naphtha?
Which petroleum fraction is used as chemical feedstock?
What is the chemical formula for ethane?
Why are alkanes known as 'saturated hydrocarbons'?
they contain only single C-C covalent bonds
What are isomers?
compounds with the same molecular formula (reject chemical formula) but different structural formula
Why do the the mp/bp of alkanes increase down the homologous series (i.e. as molecular size of alkane increase)?
stronger intermolecular forces of attraction between alkane molecules
How does the viscosity of alkanes change?
Becomes more viscous as the alkane molecular size increase.
What are the products of complete combustion of alkanes?
carbon dioxide and water/water vapour
Why are alkanes generally unreactive?
strong C-C and C-H bonds which are difficult to break (need relatively large input of energy to break bonds)
Name all the products in the final mixture when methane reacts with chlorine under UV light?
hydrogen chloride (reject hydrochloric acid)
What is the general formula for alkenes?
Why are alkenes known as 'unsaturated hydrocarbons'?
contain one or more C=C [or carbon-carbon double bond] (reject 'carbon double bond')
State the catalysts used in catalytic cracking.
aluminium oxide or silicon(IV) oxide (or silicon dioxide)
What are the possible products of catalytic cracking?
smaller alkenes and smaller alkanes and hydrogen gas
What are the conditions for hydrogenation of alkenes?
200 degree Celsius and Ni catalyst
What is the product formed when pentene undergoes hydrogenation?
What is a major application of hydrogenation?
to make margarine from vegetable oil
What observation is seen when an alkene undergoes bromination?
reddish-brown bromine turns colourless (is decolourised)