Organic Synthesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic Synthesis Deck (34):
1

Acyl chloride or acid anhydride to Ester

Alcohol , room temperature, Nucleophilic addition-elimination

2

Ester to alcohol

Dilute H2SO4 or NaOH , Reflux
Acid or base hydrolysis

3

Alcohol to Ester

Concentrated H2SO4
Carboxylic acid
Esterification
Reflux

4

Secondary alcohol to ketone

Acidified potassium dichromate(VI)
(H2SO4/K2Cr2O7)
Heat under reflux
Oxidation

5

Ketone to secondary alcohol

NaBH4
Dilute HCl( H+)
R.T
Reduction
Nucleophilic addition

6

Ester to Carboxylic acid/Carboxylate salt

Dilute H2SO4/HCl or NaOH(aq)
Acid or base hydrolysis
Heat under reflux

7

Carboxylic acid to Ester

Alcohol
Concentration H2SO4
Heat under reflux
Esterification

8

Primary alcohol to aldehyde

H2SO4/K2Cr2O7
Acidified potassium dichromate(VI)
Oxidation
Immediate distillation

9

Aldehyde to an alcohol

NaBH4
Reduction
Dilute HCl( H+)
Nucleophilic addition

9

Aldehyde to Carboxylic acid

K2CR2O7/H2SO4
Reflux
Oxidation

10

Primary Alcohol to Carboxylic acid

H2SO4/K2CR2O7
Reflux
Oxidation

11

Halogenoalkane to alcohol

Naoh(aq)
Warm
Nucleophilic substitution

12

Alkene to alcohol

H3PO4 Catalyst, Steam(h20 gs)
300 degrees Celsius
60 atm
Hydration(elimination )

13

Alcohol to alkene

Concentrated H2SO4
Heat
Dehydration( elimination)

14

Acyl chloride or acid anhydride to Carboxylic acid

H20
RT
Nucleophilic Addition-Elimination

15

Acyl chloride or Acid anhydride to primary amide

NH3
RT
Nucleophilic Addition and elimination

16

Halogenoalkane to primary amine

Excess ethanolic ammonia
Heat under reflux
Nucleophilic substitution

17

Primary Amine to Secondary Amine

R-X
Nucleophilic substitution

18

Halogenoalkane to secondary amine

Primary amine
Reflux
Nucleophilic substitution

19

Secondary amine to tertiary amine

R-X
Heat
Nucleophilic substitution

20

Primary amine to secondary amide/ N-Substituted amide

Acyl chloride / Acid Anhydride
Room temperature
Nucleophilic addition elimination.

21

Halogenoalkane to nitrile *

KCN
In ethanol as solvent
Warm
(Reflux )

*increases the length of the carbon chain

22

Nitriles to amines

H2
Nickel catalyst
High temperatures and pressures
Reduction

23

AlkAne to halogenoalkane

Cl2 or Br2
UV light
Room temperature
Free radical substitution

24

Halogenoalkane to alkene

Ethanolic KOH
Reflux
Elimination

25

Alkene to halogenoalkane

Electrophilic addition
HBr or HCl

26

Alkene to dibromo/chloroalkane

Br2 or Cl2
Electrophilic addition
Room temperature

27

Aldehyde to hydroxynitrile

KCN
Dilute HCl(H+)
Nucleophilic addition
RT

28

Ketone to hydroxynitrile
*

KCN
Dilute HCL( H+)
Nucleophilic addition
RT

29

Nitrile to Carboxylic acid( and ammonium salt such as NH4Cl)

Hydrolyse using water and dilute HCl
Therefore acid hydrolysis
Reflux

30

Benzene to Nitrobenzene

Conc H2S04
CONC HNO3
BELOW 55OC
ELECTROPHILLIC SUBSTITUTION

31

Nitrobenzene to phenylamine

Sn
Conc HCl
Reflux
Reduction

32

Phenylamine to N-Phenylethanamide/ or n substutited amide

CH3COCl( acyl chloride)
Nucleophilic addition-elimination

34

Benzene to phenylketone

Reflux
Electrophilic substit ution
acylation
AlCl3(halogen carrier)
ACYL CHLORIDE