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Flashcards in Organisation Deck (68):
1

What is the basic building block of all living organisms?

Cells

2

What is a tissue?

A group of cells with a similar structure and function

3

What are organs

Collection of tissues performing specific functions

4

What is the digestive system

An organ system in which several organs work together to digest and absorb food

5

What are enzymes

Biological catalysts- they increase the speed of reaction, without being changed or used up in the reaction

6

What's the link between enzymes and metabolism

Enzymes control the metabolism. Metabolism is the sum of all the chemical reactions that happen in a cell or the body.

7

Relate enzyme molecules activity to temperature and pH

All enzymes work best at only one particular temperature and pH. This is called the optimum pH

8

How to denature an enzyme

If it gets too hot or the pH is too bight or too low, the bonds holding together the enzymes break, changing the shape of the active site

9

How do you calculate rate of reaction?

Rate= 1000
-----
Time

10

How come enzymes catalyse specific reactions in living organisms

Du to the shape of their active site

11

Lock and key theory

A substrate is thought to fit into an enzymes active site. The enzyme is the lock and the reactant the key

Enzyme. Enzyme- Enzyme
+. Substrate +
Substrate Complex Products

12

Production and action of amylase

Amylase is the enzyme that breaks down starch into sugar. Amylase is made in the salivary glands and pancreas

13

Production and action of lipases

Lipases are the enzymes to break down lipids (fats) into fatty acids and glycerol. They are made in the pancreas and small intestine

14

Production and action of protease

Proteases are used to break down proteins into amino acids. They are made in the stomach, pancreas and small intestine

15

What do digestive enzymes do

Convert food into small soluble molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream

16

What do carbohydrases do

Break down carbohydrates into simple sugars

17

Where is bile made and stored

Made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder

18

What does bile do

It's alkaline to neutralise hydrochloric acid from the stomach. It also emulsifies fats

19

What are the products of digestion used for

Used to build new carbohydrates, lipids and proteins

20

Label heart

Top right- right atrium
Bottom right- right ventricle
Top left- left atrium
Bottom left- left ventricle
Valve in right atrium- vena cava
Valve in left atrium- pulmonary vein
Middle right valve- pulmonary artery
Middle left valve- aorta

21

Function of heart

Blood from body enters right atrium through vena cava, exits the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery to lungs. Blood from lungs enters left atrium through pulmonary vein, exits the left ventricle through the aorta to rest of body

22

Does the heart pump blood out through arteries or veins?

Arteries

Arteries- away
Veins- in

23

What side of the heart pumps what type of blood

The right side pumps deoxygenated blood and the left oxygenated blood.

24

Function of lungs

Oxygen goes down the trachea, the left bronchus and then the bronchiole. Goes down a terminal bronchiole, enters an airspace of an alveolus. The oxygen dissolves in the moist lining of the alveolus. Diffuses in the blood plasma, diffuses across the cells lining the capillary. The oxygen diffuses into a red blood cell and binds to haemoglobin to make oxyhemoglobin

25

What do arteries do?

Carry the blood away from the heart

26

What do capillaries do

Involved with the exchange of materials at the tissues

27

What do the veins do

Carry blood to the heart

28

What is the natural resting heart controlled by

A group of cells located in the right atrium that act as a pacemaker

29

What are artificial pacemakers

Electrical devices used to correct irregularities in the heart rate

30

Structure of arteries

Thick walls as heart pumps blood out at a high pressure

31

Structure of capillaries

Thin wall- only one cell thick so substances can diffuse in and out

32

Structure of vein

Big lumen (middle) to help blood flow

33

Calculation for blood flow

Rate of blood flow= volume of blood (divided by) number of minutes

34

What is blood

A tissue consisting of plasma, in which red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are suspended

35

What do red blood cells do?

Carry oxygen from lungs to cells in body
Contains haemoglobin, in lungs the haemoglobin binds to oxygen to make oxyhemoglobin

36

What do white blood cells do?

Defend against infection

37

What do platelets do?

They help blood clot at a wound- to stop blood pouring out and stop microorganism getting in

38

How have red blood cells adapted to their functions

No nucleus so there's more room to carry oxygen
Shaped like a doughnut for a bigger surface area for absorbing oxygen

39

How have white blood cells adapted to their functions

Can change shape to engulf unwelcome microorganisms
Nucleus

40

How have red platelets adapted to their functions

Small fragments of cells
No nucleus

41

What is coronary heart disease

When coronary arteries that supply blood to the muscle of the heart get blocked by layers of fatty material building up

42

What can coronary heart disease result in

A heart attack as the blood flow is restricted so there is a lack of oxygen in the heart

43

What are stents

Stents are used to keep the coronary arteries open when fatty materials narrow them

44

What can faulty heart valves be replaced with

mechanical or biological valves

45

What are statins used for

Reducing blood cholesterol levels which slows down the rate of fatty materials

46

Consequences of faulty heart valves

Damaged by heart attacks or old age, damage can cause the valve tissues to stiffen so it won't open. Or a valve may leak, allowing blood to flow in both directions

47

Can you have an artificial heart

Yes, artificial hearts are occasionally used to keep patients alive whilst waiting for a heart transplant

48

Define health

Health is a state of physical and mental wellbeing

49

Define disease

Disease are the major causes of ill health.

50

What is communicable disease

Diseases that can be spread from person to persons or between animals and people

51

What is non-communicable disease

Those that cannot spread between people

52

What's the human cost of non-communicable diseases

The human cost- tens of millions of people die each year.
People with these diseases may have a shorter life span

53

What's the financial cost of non-communicable diseases

Huge cost to the NHS researching and treating the disease
Families may have to adapt home to help family memeber

54

What's the effect of lifestyle factors on the incidence of non communicable diseases

Drinking too much alchohol can cause liver disease
Smoking can cause lung disease
Obesity can cause type 2 diabetes

55

List 5 ways communicable diseases spread

Direct contact- sexual intercourse
Airborne droplets- coughs
Food + water-dirty w, uncooked f
Animals- carry diseases
Mother to child- smoking

56

What are risk factors

Things linked to an increased rate of disease

57

What can risk factors be

Aspects of someone's lifestyle
Substances in the persons body or environment

58

What other factors can cause ill health

Diet
Stress
Life situations

59

How is cancer formed

Changes in cells that lead to uncontrolled growth and division

60

What are benign tumours

Growths of abnormal cells which are contained in one area. They do not invade other parts of the body

61

What are malignant tumours cells?

Cancers. They invade neighbouring tissues and spread to different parts of the body

62

List lifestyle risks for types of cancers

Smoking- lung cancer
Obesity- bowel, liver and kidney cancer
UV exposure- skin cancer

63

What test do you use to find starch and what colour

Iodine- black

64

What test do you use to find sugar and what colour

Benedict's- red or green/yellow

65

What test do you use to find protein and what colour

Biuret- purple

66

What test do you use to find lipids and what colour

Ethanol - cloudy/milky

67

What happens when you breathe in

Diaphragm contracts (tightens) and moves down. Lungs expand.

68

What happens when you breathe out

Diaphragm relaxes. Moves up. Lungs shrink