Flashcards in Organisation Deck (72):
What causes Coronary Heart Disease?
Usually it is caused by a build-up of fatty deposits (atheroma) on the walls of the arteries around the heart.
This process is called atherosclerosis.
The build-up of atheroma makes the arteries narrower, restricting the flow of blood to the heart muscle
What factors increase your chance of getting CHD?
• have high blood pressure
• have a high blood cholesterol level
• don't take regular exercise
• have diabetes
• are obese or overweight
• have a family history of CHD
What are the consequences of CHD?
Coronary Heart Disease can cause pain, a heart attack and even death.
What is a stent?
A stent is metal mesh that is placed in an artery
How does a stent work?
a tiny balloon is inflated to open up the blood vessel and the stent. The balloon is deflated and removed but the stent stays in place and hold the blood vessel open. This cause the blood in the coronary artery to flow freely.
What are the advantages of a stent?
A stents can be a lifesaver, especially when performed right after a heart attack.
It can improve your blood flow and prevent further damage to your heart muscle.
It can also improve symptoms of heart disease, such as chest pain and shortness of breath.
In many cases, you will feel the benefits immediately and it will take days to recover from the surgery
What are the disadvantages of a stent?
Stents can cause bleeding, damage to your blood vessel or heart, or irregular heartbeat. Other potential but rare complications include heart attack, kidney failure, and stroke. There is also a risk of blood clots forming within your stent.
What is a statin?
A statin is made up of parts of veins from other parts of the body for replacing a narrow of blocked coronary artery. This is good for badly blocked arteries where stents cannot help.
How do Statins work?
They reduce blood cholesterol levels which slows the rate which fatty materials are deposited in the coronary arteries.
What are the Advantages of Statins
Help low cholesterol levels, which can helps decrease risk of stroke, heart attack, and other vessel-related diseases.
They help stabilise the blood vessel lining, which benefits the whole body.
This also makes plaque less likely to rupture in the heart, lowering the risk of a heart attack.
Help to relax the blood vessels, which leads to a decrease in blood pressure.
What are the side effects of Statins?
• type 2 diabetes or higher blood sugar
• confusion and memory loss
• liver damage
• muscle damage
• kidney damage
Why would a heart valve become faulty?
Heart valves have to be able to withstand a lot of pressure.
Over time they may become faulty, stiff or leaky, making the heart less efficient.
How can you fix a faulty valve?
Doctors can now replace valves with mechanical valves made of titanium and polymers
Biological valves are valves taken from animals like pig, cattle or even human donors.
What are the consequences of a mechanical valve and biological valve?
If you have a mechanical valve installed you have to take medicine for the rest of your life to prevent your blood from clotting around it.
Biological valves only lasts about 12-15 years.
What are the advantage of having a biological valve and mechanical one?
Biological valves work well and doesn’t need medication.
Mechanical valves last for the rest of your life
What does an artificial pacemaker do?
An artificial pacemaker is an electrical device which corrects the irregularity in heart rate
How does an artificial pacemaker work?
It is installed in your chest as it only weighs about 20-50 grams and connects to your heart by 2 wires.
They send strong, regular electrical signals to your heart to stimulate a steady heartbeat.
Why would someone need a heart transplant?
If the heart fails completely, artificial pacemakers aren’t enough to restore someones health.
What are the risks of waiting for a heart transplant?
If someone needs a heart transplant, they need to wait for a heart with the same tissue as their own, which means that people could die before they have a chance of having a transplant.
Why have scientists invented the temporary heart?
Scientists have invented a temporary heart that can support the natural heart until it can be replaced.
What are the disadvantages of the temporary heart?
Artificial hearts need a lot of machinery to keep it working which means that patients have to stay in hospital until they have their transplant.
What are the risks of a temporary heart?
There always a chance of blood clotting in the artificial heart which could lead to death.
What are the advantages of a temporary heart?
They give diseased hearts a rest so it can recover. Patients having an artificial heart removes the stress and keeps the blood circulating.
Why are temporary hearts not widely used?
costs a lot
Blood flows through your...
Rest of the body.
Blood carries a lot to the body tissue, including...
Blood carries things out of the body, like...
What are the main components of blood?
Red blood cells
White blood cells
What is plasma?
Plasma is the liquid component of the blood where the other blood cells are suspended.
What are red blood cells?
Red Blood cells (erythrocytes), carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.
What are white blood cells?
White blood cells (leukocytes) help fight infections and help in the immune process.
What are the different types of white blood cells?
What are plateles?
Platelets help the blood to clot.
What are the characteristic of arteries?
Carry blood away from the heart
Have thick muscular walls
Have small passageways for blood (internal lumen)
Contain blood under high pressure
What are the characteristic of veins?
Carry blood to the heart
Have thin walls
Have larger internal lumen
Contain blood under low pressure
Have valves to prevent blood flowing backwards.
What are the characteristic of capillaries?
Found in the muscles and lungs
Microscopic – one cell thick
Very low blood pressure
Where gas exchange takes place. Oxygen passes through the capillary wall and into the tissues, carbon dioxide passes from the tissues into the blood
What is the Pulmonary Vein?
the only vein in the body to carry oxygenated blood
What is the Pulmonary Artery?
only artery in the body to carry deoxygenated blood
How does the human heart work?
We have a double circulation system-blood goes through the heart twice on each complete circuit of the body.
What are the advantages of a human heart?
maintain a higher pressure
Increase pressure after blood flaws through lungs
Maintain a high level of activity.
What is the average breathing and heart rate per minute?
Average breathing rate at rest 12-15 breaths per minute.
Average resting heart rate 60-80 beats per minute.
What do enzymes control?
Enzymes control every reaction in your body
What are proteins made up of?
Proteins are made up of a long chain of amino
Define Anabolic & Catabolic
Key facts about enzymes
They are proteins
They are biological catalysts~they speed up a chemical reaction, without being changed or used up.
They are specific~each enzyme will only speed up one particular reaction.
They are affected by temperature and pH.
They have an active site, where two substrate(s) bind.
Substrate has a complementary shape to the active site of the enzymes.
What is the order of size inside the human body?
Basic building blocks, smallest units of life
Group of cells, similar structure and function
Group of tissue, perform a specific overall function
Define organ systems
collection of organs
What is digestion?
the breaking down of large, insoluble food molecules into small soluble food molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
What is Physical digestion?
pull apart the food and tear into smaller pieces-teeth, muscles in the stomach churn the food into a liquid (chyme).
What is chemical digestion?
uses digestive enzymes to break the bonds in large food molecules to produce smaller molecules.
What is the breakdown for carbohydrates?
Where are carbs digested?
What is the breakdown for proteins?
Where are proteins digested?
What is the breakdown for lipids-fat and oils?
Lipids(fats)————>fatty acids + glycerol
Where is bile poduced?
Produced/made in the liver
Where is bile stored?
stored in the gall bladder,
Where is bile released via?
released via the bile duct into the small intestine.
What are the key roles of bile?
mulsify fat-breaker down in large globules of fat into small droplets-this increases the surface area, making it easier for the ukases to work.
Neutralise excess stomach acid-to provide optimism conditions for enzymes in the small intestine-slightly alkaline.
Describe Epidermal tissue
Plants skin, covers the surfaces and protects it. Has a waxy substance over it that waterproofs the surface.
Describe Palisade mesophyll
Lots of chloroplasts, carries out photosynthesis
Describe Spongey mesophyll
contains some chloroplasts for photosynthesis, has air spaces and a large surface area to make the diffusion of gasses easier.
transport tissues, carries dissolved food from leaves around plant.
Explain how a phloem works?
transports sugars made by photosynthesis from the leaves to the rest of the plant. Transports to the growing areas of stems and roots where dissolved sugars are needed make new plant cells. Food is transported to storage organs where energy is stored for winter. Phloem is in rings underneath the bark
Carries water snd mineral ions from soil around the plant to the stem and leaves, xylem makes up the bulk of the wood.
Describe Root Hair
collects water and mineral nutrients in the soil and takes the solution up through the roots to the rest of the plant. They do not contain chloroplasts.
Describe Meristem tissue
Filled with unspecialised meristematic cells, which divide so that the plant gets bigger. Generally found in the tips of the plant's roots and shoots and helps the plant get longer.
the movement of dissolved sugars from leaves to the rest of the plant.