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Flashcards in Organisation Deck (72):
1

What causes Coronary Heart Disease?

Usually it is caused by a build-up of fatty deposits (atheroma) on the walls of the arteries around the heart.
This process is called atherosclerosis.
The build-up of atheroma makes the arteries narrower, restricting the flow of blood to the heart muscle

2

What factors increase your chance of getting CHD?

• smoke
• have high blood pressure 
• have a high blood cholesterol level
• don't take regular exercise
• have diabetes
• are obese or overweight
• have a family history of CHD

3

What are the consequences of CHD?

Coronary Heart Disease can cause pain, a heart attack and even death.

4

What is a stent?

A stent is metal mesh that is placed in an artery

5

How does a stent work?

a tiny balloon is inflated to open up the blood vessel and the stent. The balloon is deflated and removed but the stent stays in place and hold the blood vessel open. This cause the blood in the coronary artery to flow freely.

6

What are the advantages of a stent?

A stents can be a lifesaver, especially when performed right after a heart attack.
It can improve your blood flow and prevent further damage to your heart muscle.
It can also improve symptoms of heart disease, such as chest pain and shortness of breath.
In many cases, you will feel the benefits immediately and it will take days to recover from the surgery

7

What are the disadvantages of a stent?

Stents can cause bleeding, damage to your blood vessel or heart, or irregular heartbeat. Other potential but rare complications include heart attack, kidney failure, and stroke. There is also a risk of blood clots forming within your stent.

8

What is a statin?

A statin is made up of parts of veins from other parts of the body for replacing a narrow of blocked coronary artery. This is good for badly blocked arteries where stents cannot help.

9

How do Statins work?

They reduce blood cholesterol levels which slows the rate which fatty materials are deposited in the coronary arteries.

10

What are the Advantages of Statins

Help low cholesterol levels, which can helps decrease risk of stroke, heart attack, and other vessel-related diseases.
They help stabilise the blood vessel lining, which benefits the whole body.
This also makes plaque less likely to rupture in the heart, lowering the risk of a heart attack.
Help to relax the blood vessels, which leads to a decrease in blood pressure.

11

What are the side effects of Statins?

• type 2 diabetes or higher blood sugar
• confusion and memory loss
• liver damage
• muscle damage
• kidney damage

12

Why would a heart valve become faulty?

Heart valves have to be able to withstand a lot of pressure.
Over time they may become faulty, stiff or leaky, making the heart less efficient.

13

How can you fix a faulty valve?

Doctors can now replace valves with mechanical valves made of titanium and polymers
or
Biological valves are valves taken from animals like pig, cattle or even human donors.

14

What are the consequences of a mechanical valve and biological valve?

If you have a mechanical valve installed you have to take medicine for the rest of your life to prevent your blood from clotting around it.

Biological valves only lasts about 12-15 years.

15

What are the advantage of having a biological valve and mechanical one?

Biological valves work well and doesn’t need medication.

Mechanical valves last for the rest of your life

16

What does an artificial pacemaker do?

An artificial pacemaker is an electrical device which corrects the irregularity in heart rate

17

How does an artificial pacemaker work?

It is installed in your chest as it only weighs about 20-50 grams and connects to your heart by 2 wires.
They send strong, regular electrical signals to your heart to stimulate a steady heartbeat.

18

Why would someone need a heart transplant?

If the heart fails completely, artificial pacemakers aren’t enough to restore someones health.

19

What are the risks of waiting for a heart transplant?

If someone needs a heart transplant, they need to wait for a heart with the same tissue as their own, which means that people could die before they have a chance of having a transplant.

20

Why have scientists invented the temporary heart?

Scientists have invented a temporary heart that can support the natural heart until it can be replaced.

21

What are the disadvantages of the temporary heart?

Artificial hearts need a lot of machinery to keep it working which means that patients have to stay in hospital until they have their transplant.

22

What are the risks of a temporary heart?

There always a chance of blood clotting in the artificial heart which could lead to death.

23

What are the advantages of a temporary heart?

They give diseased hearts a rest so it can recover. Patients having an artificial heart removes the stress and keeps the blood circulating.

24

Why are temporary hearts not widely used?

costs a lot

25

Blood flows through your...

Heart
Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
Brain
Rest of the body.

26

Blood carries a lot to the body tissue, including...

Nourishment
Electrolytes
Hormones
Antibodies
Vitamins
Heat
Oxygen


27

Blood carries things out of the body, like...

Waste materials
Carbon dioxide

28

What are the main components of blood?

Plasma
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Platelets

29

What is plasma?

Plasma is the liquid component of the blood where the other blood cells are suspended.

30

What are red blood cells?

Red Blood cells (erythrocytes), carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.

31

What are white blood cells?

White blood cells (leukocytes) help fight infections and help in the immune process.

32

What are the different types of white blood cells?

Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils
Neutrophils

33

What are plateles?

Platelets help the blood to clot.

34

What are the characteristic of arteries?

Carry blood away from the heart
Have thick muscular walls
Have small passageways for blood (internal lumen)
Contain blood under high pressure

35

What are the characteristic of veins?

Carry blood to the heart
Have thin walls
Have larger internal lumen
Contain blood under low pressure
Have valves to prevent blood flowing backwards.

36

What are the characteristic of capillaries?

Found in the muscles and lungs
Microscopic – one cell thick
Very low blood pressure
Where gas exchange takes place. Oxygen passes through the capillary wall and into the tissues, carbon dioxide passes from the tissues into the blood

37

What is the Pulmonary Vein?

the only vein in the body to carry oxygenated blood

38

What is the Pulmonary Artery?

only artery in the body to carry deoxygenated blood

39

How does the human heart work?

We have a double circulation system-blood goes through the heart twice on each complete circuit of the body.

40

What are the advantages of a human heart?

more efficient
maintain a higher pressure
Increase pressure after blood flaws through lungs
Maintain a high level of activity.

41

What is the average breathing and heart rate per minute?

Average breathing rate at rest 12-15 breaths per minute.

Average resting heart rate 60-80 beats per minute.

42

What do enzymes control?

Enzymes control every reaction in your body

43

What are proteins made up of?

Proteins are made up of a long chain of amino

44

Define Anabolic & Catabolic

Anabolic—>build up
Catabolic—>break down

45

Key facts about enzymes

They are proteins
They are biological catalysts~they speed up a chemical reaction, without being changed or used up.
They are specific~each enzyme will only speed up one particular reaction.
They are affected by temperature and pH.
They have an active site, where two substrate(s) bind.
Substrate has a complementary shape to the active site of the enzymes.

46

What is the order of size inside the human body?

Cells—>Tissues—>Organs—>Organ—>Organisms
systems

47

Define cells

Basic building blocks, smallest units of life

48

Define tissues

Group of cells, similar structure and function

49

Define organs

Group of tissue, perform a specific overall function

50

Define organ systems

collection of organs

51

What is digestion?

the breaking down of large, insoluble food molecules into small soluble food molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream

52

What is Physical digestion?

pull apart the food and tear into smaller pieces-teeth, muscles in the stomach churn the food into a liquid (chyme).

53

What is chemical digestion?

uses digestive enzymes to break the bonds in large food molecules to produce smaller molecules.

54

What is the breakdown for carbohydrates?

amylase
Starch—————>glucose

carbohydrases
Carbohydrates————————>simple sugars

55

Where are carbs digested?

mouth
small intestine

56

What is the breakdown for proteins?

proteases
Protein——————>Amino acids

57

Where are proteins digested?

stomach
small intestine

58

What is the breakdown for lipids-fat and oils?

lipases
Lipids(fats)————>fatty acids + glycerol

59

Where is bile poduced?

Produced/made in the liver

60

Where is bile stored?

stored in the gall bladder,

61

Where is bile released via?

released via the bile duct into the small intestine.

62

What are the key roles of bile?

mulsify fat-breaker down in large globules of fat into small droplets-this increases the surface area, making it easier for the ukases to work.

Neutralise excess stomach acid-to provide optimism conditions for enzymes in the small intestine-slightly alkaline.

63

Describe Epidermal tissue

Plants skin, covers the surfaces and protects it. Has a waxy substance over it that waterproofs the surface.

64

Describe Palisade mesophyll

Lots of chloroplasts, carries out photosynthesis

65

Describe Spongey mesophyll

contains some chloroplasts for photosynthesis, has air spaces and a large surface area to make the diffusion of gasses easier.

66

Describe Phloem

transport tissues, carries dissolved food from leaves around plant.

67

Explain how a phloem works?

transports sugars made by photosynthesis from the leaves to the rest of the plant. Transports to the growing areas of stems and roots where dissolved sugars are needed make new plant cells. Food is transported to storage organs where energy is stored for winter. Phloem is in rings underneath the bark

68

Describe Xylem

Carries water snd mineral ions from soil around the plant to the stem and leaves, xylem makes up the bulk of the wood.

69

Describe Root Hair

collects water and mineral nutrients in the soil and takes the solution up through the roots to the rest of the plant. They do not contain chloroplasts.

70

Describe Meristem tissue

Filled with unspecialised meristematic cells, which divide so that the plant gets bigger. Generally found in the tips of the plant's roots and shoots and helps the plant get longer.

71

Explain Translocation

the movement of dissolved sugars from leaves to the rest of the plant.

72

Explain Tranpiration

How water moves up the plant against gravity in tubes made of dead xylem cells without the use of a pump. Water on the surface of spongy and palisade cells evaporate and then diffuse out of the leaf. More water is drawn out of the xylem cells inside the leaf to replace what's lost. As the xylem cells make a continuous tube from the leaf, down the stem to the roots, this acts like a drinking straw, producing a flow of water and dissolved minerals from roots to leaves. Guard cells are cells surrounding each stoma. They help to regulate the rate of transpiration by opening and closing the stomata.