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Flashcards in Organisation Deck (42):
1

Digestion

The process of breaking down of large food molecules into smaller soluble molecules

2

Why is digestion important?

Because only soluble molecules can move into the blood.

3

What is the process of digestion

Mouth/salivary glands, oesophagus, liver&gall bladder/stomach, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine

4

Rectum

Where faeces are stored

5

Mouth

Food is chewed and swallowed

6

Oesophagus

Tube that connects the mouth to the stomach

7

Anus

Where faeces leave

8

Pancreas

This organ produces carbohydrase, lipase and protease.

9

Salivary glands

Produce saliva which contains the enzyme carbohydrase

10

Large intestine

Water from waste food is absorbed

11

Gall bladder

Stores bile

12

Small intestine

This is where absorption of the food molecules into the blood steam takes place.

13

Liver

Produces bile which is used to break down big fat molecules into small ones.

14

Stomach

The organ contains protease and hydrochloride acid to kill bacteria.

15

What do you use to test for sugars?

Benedict’s solution

16

What do you use to test for starch

Iodine

17

Enzyme

Biological catalyst, they are used to speed up chemical reactions.

18

What are the components of the blood?

White blood cells
Red blood cells
Plasma
Platelets

19

Phagocyte

Engulf and digest pathogens

20

Lymphocyte

Produce antibodies and antitoxins

21

Arteries

Carry oxygenated blood away from heart at high pressure.

22

Capillaries

Form networks around organs

23

Veins

Carry unoxygenated blood towards the heart at low pressure therefore requiring valves.

24

The lungs

Nasal cavity, traches, bronchus, bronchiola, avioli, lung, ribs, intercostal muscles, diaphragm

25

Cancer

A group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth

26

Benign Tumour

Contained in one area, inside a membrane however can cause pressure and damage to organs

27

Malignant tumour

Can invade neighbouring tissue, tend to travel in the blood and can also cause a secondary tumour

28

Vaccination

Helps your immune system protect you by teaching it how to fight the disease with a weakened version of the pathogen.

29

Painkiller

Relieve pain but have no real effect on the pathogen

30

Medicine

A chemical substance that is used in diagnosis, cure, treatment it prevention of a disease

31

Drug

Substance taken into the body that modified or affects chemical reactions

32

The steps to drug development

1. Target and research
2. Possible drugs made in a lab
3.Pre-clinical trials on tissue
4.Animal testing
5.Clinal trail on a small group of healthy people
6. Clinical trail on people with the disease
7.Control group who do not get the drug
8.Patients monitored as long as they are in use.
9.Passed all test and has a license.

33

Monoclonal antibodies

1 rat is exposed to large amounts of radiation creating a tumour which is extracted for the cancer cells. Another rat is inject with a disease and the lymphocytes white blood cells producing antibodies is extracted. These are then fused together to produce fast multiplying cells that fight the disease. These are then separated into cultures and after checks they are mass produced.

34

Palisade cells

Near the top of the leaf. Lots of all chlorophyll to maximise light in take. Without this photosynthesis couldn’t take place and the plant wouldn’t have energy.

35

Guard cells and stomata

Located at the bottom on the leaf, carbon dioxide and oxygen can’t diffuse so when the guard cells are turgid the stomata is open and they can escape through there.

36

Spongy mesophyll

Centre is the leaf, not closely packed to allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to travel easily travel through air space to the palisade cells

37

Thin waxy cuticle

Covering the leaf and stops water escaping

38

Xylem

Moves water from roots to leaf

39

Phloem

Moves glucose

40

Transpiration

The loss of water through evaporation from the stomata

41

Water movement in a plant

1. Water leaves due to heat from the sun through the stomata
2. Water moves out of the cells due to osmosis
3.Moves from neighbouring cells
4.So the cells don’t dehydrated water is pulled up through the xylem
5.Roots take in water from the ground

42

Plant defence response

Physical barriers
Chemical barriers