Flashcards in Organisation Deck (42):
The process of breaking down of large food molecules into smaller soluble molecules
Why is digestion important?
Because only soluble molecules can move into the blood.
What is the process of digestion
Mouth/salivary glands, oesophagus, liver&gall bladder/stomach, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine
Where faeces are stored
Food is chewed and swallowed
Tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
Where faeces leave
This organ produces carbohydrase, lipase and protease.
Produce saliva which contains the enzyme carbohydrase
Water from waste food is absorbed
This is where absorption of the food molecules into the blood steam takes place.
Produces bile which is used to break down big fat molecules into small ones.
The organ contains protease and hydrochloride acid to kill bacteria.
What do you use to test for sugars?
What do you use to test for starch
Biological catalyst, they are used to speed up chemical reactions.
What are the components of the blood?
White blood cells
Red blood cells
Engulf and digest pathogens
Produce antibodies and antitoxins
Carry oxygenated blood away from heart at high pressure.
Form networks around organs
Carry unoxygenated blood towards the heart at low pressure therefore requiring valves.
Nasal cavity, traches, bronchus, bronchiola, avioli, lung, ribs, intercostal muscles, diaphragm
A group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth
Contained in one area, inside a membrane however can cause pressure and damage to organs
Can invade neighbouring tissue, tend to travel in the blood and can also cause a secondary tumour
Helps your immune system protect you by teaching it how to fight the disease with a weakened version of the pathogen.
Relieve pain but have no real effect on the pathogen
A chemical substance that is used in diagnosis, cure, treatment it prevention of a disease
Substance taken into the body that modified or affects chemical reactions
The steps to drug development
1. Target and research
2. Possible drugs made in a lab
3.Pre-clinical trials on tissue
5.Clinal trail on a small group of healthy people
6. Clinical trail on people with the disease
7.Control group who do not get the drug
8.Patients monitored as long as they are in use.
9.Passed all test and has a license.
1 rat is exposed to large amounts of radiation creating a tumour which is extracted for the cancer cells. Another rat is inject with a disease and the lymphocytes white blood cells producing antibodies is extracted. These are then fused together to produce fast multiplying cells that fight the disease. These are then separated into cultures and after checks they are mass produced.
Near the top of the leaf. Lots of all chlorophyll to maximise light in take. Without this photosynthesis couldn’t take place and the plant wouldn’t have energy.
Guard cells and stomata
Located at the bottom on the leaf, carbon dioxide and oxygen can’t diffuse so when the guard cells are turgid the stomata is open and they can escape through there.
Centre is the leaf, not closely packed to allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to travel easily travel through air space to the palisade cells
Thin waxy cuticle
Covering the leaf and stops water escaping
Moves water from roots to leaf
The loss of water through evaporation from the stomata
Water movement in a plant
1. Water leaves due to heat from the sun through the stomata
2. Water moves out of the cells due to osmosis
3.Moves from neighbouring cells
4.So the cells don’t dehydrated water is pulled up through the xylem
5.Roots take in water from the ground