Flashcards in Organization of the Upper Limb Deck (41):
What is the single osseous articulation of the scapula to the thorax?
What structures uphold the stability of the upper limb?
- sternoclavicular joint
- muscles which attach the scapula to the thorax
What kind of joint is present in the shoulder?
ball and socket joint
What movements does the ball and socket joint of the should allow?
1. reaching above the head or swinging while supporting the body
2. pulling objects toward the body or pushing objects away in all planes
What kind of joint is the elbow?
What does the elbow allow?
allows us to bring objects closer to the trunk and face
What allows pronation and supination?
pivot joint of radius and ulna
What allows greater flexibility during grasping, pushing off or for support?
multiple bones at the wrist and hand
What is the main function of superficial fascia?
attach the skin to the body
What are the two layers of the superficial fascia?
- superficial 'fatty' layer
- deeper 'membranous' layer
The deep fascia of the upper limb is a continuation of what?
muscular fascia of the trapezius, scapular muscles, latissimus dorsi, and pectoral muscles.
What structures does the deep fascia attach to?
boney prominences not covered by muscle
What are some boney prominences that deep fascia attach to?
acromion, clavicle, supracondylar lines, humeral epicondyles, olecranon process, interosseous crests (radius, ulna), posterior shaft of the ulna, distal radius and ulna, tuberosities of the carpal bones (flexor retinaculum), distal portions of all proximal phalanges.
What are the regional names of deep fascia?
brachial, antebrachial, thenar, hypothenar
What special structures does deep fascia form?
- intermuscular septae in arm and forearm
- interosseous membrane in antebrachium
- palmer capal ligament
- flexor and extensor retinaculum of carpus
- palmer aponeurosis of the hand
What compartments does the deep fascia create in the arm and forearm?
flexor and extensor
What compartments does the deep fascia create in the hand?
thenar, hypothenar, central, and adductor-interosseous
What are the transitional zones of the upper limb?
axilla, cubital fossa, carpal tunnel, palmar spaces
What is the transitional space between the root of the neck and upper limb?
What are the boundaries of the axilla space?
tetrahedral space: body wall, pectoral and scapular musculature, humerus and axillary fascia
What does the axilla space contain?
vessels, nerves, and lymphatics to and from neck and upper limb
What is the transitional zone between the brachium and forearm?
What are the boundaries of the cubital fossa?
triangular space: arm and forearm musculature
What does the cubital fossa contain?
- bifurcation of the brachial a into radial and ulnar aa.
- biceps tendon
- median nerve
What is the transitional zone between the forearm and hand?
What forms the "tunnel" of carpal tunnel zone?
carpal bones (floor) and flexor retinaculum (roof)
What runs through the carpal tunnel?
- median nerve
- tendons of the forearm muscles that move fingers
What is the major artery that supplies the upper limb?
- name changes as passes through named regions (axillary, brachial etc.)
How are the effects of compression avoided when it comes to arterial scheme of the upper limb?
anastomotic branches from principle artery at major jointed areas (elbow)
How doe arteries travel through the arm?
within areas of deep fascia parallel to the bones (protection)
How are deep veins named?
for the arteries with travel with
How are deep veins in the forearm organized?
doubled on either side of the artery (medial and lateral branch)
What is the purpose of valves in veins?
prevents blood from coursing in the opposite direction (lack of venous pressure/resistance)
What are the two sets of lymphatics in the upper limb? Where are they located?
1. superficial - skin
2. deeper - parallels arteries
Where are lymph nodes located?
near the elbow and within the axilla
What does the left subclavian duct join after it leaves the axillary lymph nodes?
the thoracic duct
What does the right subclavian duct joint after it leaves the axillary lymph nodes?
the right lymphatic duct
What provides motor innervation to the upper limb?
brachial plexus - ventral rami of spinal nerves of C5 to T1
What provides sensory innervation to the upper limb?
fibers from 3 distinct regions (cord levels C4-T3)
- cervical plexus
- brachial plexus
- intercostal nerves
How is sensory innervation distributed?
radially - surface of limb 'steals' cutaneous distribution from the trunk