Organization of the Upper Limb Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organization of the Upper Limb Deck (41):
1

What is the single osseous articulation of the scapula to the thorax?

sternoclavicular articulation

2

What structures uphold the stability of the upper limb?

- sternoclavicular joint
- muscles which attach the scapula to the thorax

3

What kind of joint is present in the shoulder?

ball and socket joint

4

What movements does the ball and socket joint of the should allow?

1. reaching above the head or swinging while supporting the body
2. pulling objects toward the body or pushing objects away in all planes

5

What kind of joint is the elbow?

hinge joint

6

What does the elbow allow?

allows us to bring objects closer to the trunk and face

7

What allows pronation and supination?

pivot joint of radius and ulna

8

What allows greater flexibility during grasping, pushing off or for support?

multiple bones at the wrist and hand

9

What is the main function of superficial fascia?

attach the skin to the body

10

What are the two layers of the superficial fascia?

- superficial 'fatty' layer
- deeper 'membranous' layer

11

The deep fascia of the upper limb is a continuation of what?

muscular fascia of the trapezius, scapular muscles, latissimus dorsi, and pectoral muscles.

12

What structures does the deep fascia attach to?

boney prominences not covered by muscle

13

What are some boney prominences that deep fascia attach to?

acromion, clavicle, supracondylar lines, humeral epicondyles, olecranon process, interosseous crests (radius, ulna), posterior shaft of the ulna, distal radius and ulna, tuberosities of the carpal bones (flexor retinaculum), distal portions of all proximal phalanges.

14

What are the regional names of deep fascia?

brachial, antebrachial, thenar, hypothenar

15

What special structures does deep fascia form?

- intermuscular septae in arm and forearm
- interosseous membrane in antebrachium
- palmer capal ligament
- flexor and extensor retinaculum of carpus
- palmer aponeurosis of the hand

16

What compartments does the deep fascia create in the arm and forearm?

flexor and extensor

17

What compartments does the deep fascia create in the hand?

thenar, hypothenar, central, and adductor-interosseous

18

What are the transitional zones of the upper limb?

axilla, cubital fossa, carpal tunnel, palmar spaces

19

What is the transitional space between the root of the neck and upper limb?

Axilla

20

What are the boundaries of the axilla space?

tetrahedral space: body wall, pectoral and scapular musculature, humerus and axillary fascia

21

What does the axilla space contain?

vessels, nerves, and lymphatics to and from neck and upper limb

22

What is the transitional zone between the brachium and forearm?

cubital fossa

23

What are the boundaries of the cubital fossa?

triangular space: arm and forearm musculature

24

What does the cubital fossa contain?

- bifurcation of the brachial a into radial and ulnar aa.
- biceps tendon
- median nerve

25

What is the transitional zone between the forearm and hand?

carpal tunnel

26

What forms the "tunnel" of carpal tunnel zone?

carpal bones (floor) and flexor retinaculum (roof)

27

What runs through the carpal tunnel?

- median nerve
- tendons of the forearm muscles that move fingers

28

What is the major artery that supplies the upper limb?

subclavian a
- name changes as passes through named regions (axillary, brachial etc.)

29

How are the effects of compression avoided when it comes to arterial scheme of the upper limb?

anastomotic branches from principle artery at major jointed areas (elbow)

30

How doe arteries travel through the arm?

within areas of deep fascia parallel to the bones (protection)

31

How are deep veins named?

for the arteries with travel with

32

How are deep veins in the forearm organized?

doubled on either side of the artery (medial and lateral branch)

33

What is the purpose of valves in veins?

prevents blood from coursing in the opposite direction (lack of venous pressure/resistance)

34

What are the two sets of lymphatics in the upper limb? Where are they located?

1. superficial - skin
2. deeper - parallels arteries

35

Where are lymph nodes located?

near the elbow and within the axilla

36

What does the left subclavian duct join after it leaves the axillary lymph nodes?

the thoracic duct

37

What does the right subclavian duct joint after it leaves the axillary lymph nodes?

the right lymphatic duct

38

What provides motor innervation to the upper limb?

brachial plexus - ventral rami of spinal nerves of C5 to T1

39

What provides sensory innervation to the upper limb?

fibers from 3 distinct regions (cord levels C4-T3)
- cervical plexus
- brachial plexus
- intercostal nerves

40

How is sensory innervation distributed?

radially - surface of limb 'steals' cutaneous distribution from the trunk

41

How is motor innervation distributed?

longitudinally - grows into trunk from above downward