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Flashcards in Origins and Approaches Deck (79):
1

what did people not know about before Wundt?

until 1800s, topics such as pleasure, pain, knowledge, rationality, whether human traits are innate or the product of experience were common among philosophers, but the theories were not subject to any kind of scientific study.

2

Wundt x2

- He was the first person to call himself a psychologist - Credited with moving psychology away from its philosophical roots into more controlled research

3

His approach x2

- Study the structure of the human mind, by breaking down experience into its basic elements, so his approach became known as structuralism.
- Experience was analysed in terms of its components through the use of introspection as a way of studying mental processes,

4

What is the definition of introspection?

- It is the systematic analysis of ones own conscious experience of a stimulus.

5

Introspection x1

- An individual who has undergone training in how to reflect on their own cognitive processes, perhaps while performing a particular task.

6

Evaluation of introspection
Limitations x2

- Produced data which was subjective, so were not reliably reproduced by others.
- Another limitation is that participants are unable to comment on unconscious factors relating to their behaviour.

7

Evaluation of introspection
Strengths x1

- Can be used to gain access to cognitive processes.

8

behaviourists were critical ...

- of Wundt's use of introspection as it relied primarily on non-observable responses so produced data which was subjective.

9

Behaviourists were studying ...

-objective, observable behaviour, achieving reliably reproducible results and discovering principles that could be easily generalised to all human beings

10

The biological approach
x2

- Physiology and biology are at the root of all behaviour
- more specifically, behaviour is influenced by: genes, biological structures and neurochemistry

11

How do genes influence our behaviour?
x2

- Chromosomes are made up of DNA divided into short sections called genes.
- genes carry instructions for physical characteristics and psychological characteristics.

12

What is a genotype

It is the genetic code that is written in the DNA of an individual's cells. It refers to an individuals genetic makeup

13

What is a phenotype

It is the physical appearance or psychological trait that results from the interaction between the genotype and the environment

14

Monozygotic twins share

100% of their genes

15

Dizygotic twins share

50% of their genes

16

Concordance rate

refers to the likelihood that the same trait will appear in both members of a pair of twins

17

Central nervous system

- Neurons in the brain and spinal cord

18

Peripheral nervous system

- Neurons throughout the rest of the body

19

The biological structure

- Pain receptor -- sensory neuron -- relay neuron -- motor neuron -- effector muscle

20

Neurochemistry

- When a nerve impulse reaches the end of a neuron, a chemical called a neurotransmitter is released. It travels from one neuron to another across a junction called a synapse.

21

Examples of neurotransmitters
x3

- Gaba - calms the brain
- serotonin - affects mood, learning and sleep
- dopamine - influences movement, learning, attention and emotion

22

Biological approach
Strengths
x2

- the biological approach adopts scientific objective methods of investigation so it is based on reliable data.
- Clear predictions of behaviour and so it has led to application in the real world

23

Biological approach
Limitations
x2

- Twin studies have often been used to provide evidence of a genetic basis to behaviour. However, this assumes that each twin in a pair, experiences that same environment
- Some explanations are too simplistic and cannot fully explain complex human behaviours

24

The behaviourist approach
x2

- All behaviour is learnt from experience through either classical or operant conditioning.
- We are born a blank slate, so there is no genetic influence on our behaviour

25

Classical conditioning
x2

- Learning by association and is sometimes referred to as stimulus-response learning
- when another stimulus is consistently associated with this first stimulus, eventually this associated stimulus also triggers the same response.

26

Pavlov's research
steps 1 and 2

1- Food (unconditioned stimulus) caused the dog to salivate (unconditioned response). A bell (neutral stimulus) did not cause the sae response
2- The bell (neutral stimulus) was paired with food (unconditioned stimulus) on a number of occasions, the bell was rang immediately before bringing the food

27

Operant conditioning

- this is learning from the consequences of our actions. Skinner argued that learning is an active process. If consequences are pleasant they repeat the behaviour.

28

Skinner's research

- Designed a box in which an animals behaviour could be rewarded with food pellets or with the removal of discomfort or could be punished through causing discomfort.

29

Behaviourist approach
Strength x2

- has experimental support: all studies were lab experiments so were well controlled and can be checked for reliability
- has real-life application: explain phobias and has given rise to many treatments that have been found effective

30

Behaviourist approach
Limitation x2

- It does not take into account the influence of biological factors
- sees people as passive in their learning with little conscious thoughts influencing their behaviour

31

Skinner's research
Negative reinforcement x2

- When performing an action removes something unpleasant
- increases the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated

32

Skinner's research
Punishment x2

- This is an unpleasant consequence
- Reduces the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated

33

Skinner's research
Punishment x2

- This is an unpleasant consequence
- Reduces the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated

34

Social learning theory

- Behaviour is learned from our environment so genetics is not an influence on behaviour.
- Behaviour is learned from observing others
- Imitation is more likely to occur

35

Key concepts in SLT

- Social learning is also referred to as modelling. Individuals that are observed are called models

36

Vicarious reinforcement

- The observer will take account of their actions. hat the consequences of the behaviour were for the model when deciding whether or not to imitate their actions

37

Identification

- The observer is more likely to imitate a model with whom they identify. These may be people in their immediate world, such as parents or older siblings.

38

Mediational processes - A

ATTENTION - learning through observation occurs by attending to a model's behaviour

39

Direct reinforcement

- The perceived likelihood of the observer being directly reinforced or punished, were they to imitate the model which would influence whether the observer does imitate the model

40

Bandura's research
Procedure

Children aged 3 to 6 years old observed an adult model behaving in either an aggressive or non-aggressive way towards the bobo doll for 10 mins. The children were asked to wait in a second room where they were not allowed to play with the toys. Then were taken into a third room where they could play with the toys and bobo doll

41

Bandura's research
Findings

Children who had seen the aggressive model acted more aggressively when observed. Boys behaved more aggressively than girls. Also the children were more likely to imitate the aggressive acts if they saw the model being rewarded.

42

Bandura's research
Evaluation
Strengths x1

- Lab experiment is controlled so cause and effect can be proven and easy to replicate

43

Bandura's research
Evaluation
Limitations x2

- lab experiment so can cause demand characteristics
- Deception
- Psychological harm

44

Social learning theory
Evaluation
Strengths x1

- Can successfully explain many behaviours in children and initiation of certain behaviours like smoking

45

Social learning theory
Evaluation
Limitations

- Not a full explanation for all behaviour. This is particularly the case when there is no apparent role model in the person's life to imitated for a given behaviour.

46

Mediational processes - M

MOTIVATION - the reward and punishment that follows the modelled behaviour will be considered by the observer.

47

The cognitive approach x2

- Behaviour is influenced by our mental processes, particularly our schemas.
- The mind works like a computer

48

The study of internal mental processes

The cognitive approach studies our mental processes, such as thinking, attention and language. Cognitive psychologists believe that behaviour can only be understood by studying the underlying mental processes using scientific experimental methods.

49

Theoretical models
x2

- These are an attempt to describe the step-by step mental processes behind a behaviour. We can infer what someone is thinking based on their actions.
- Example of theoretical models include MSM and WMM

50

Computer models
x2

- Psychologists are strongly influence by the idea that the mind functions like a computer and use information processing models to explain behaviour
- Input, Processing, Output

51

The role of schemas
x3

- A schema is a knowledge structure that helps us organise and interpret information.
The develop and evolve through experience.
- Often central to processing stage of an information processing model.
- Schemas allow us to take shortcuts.

52

The emergence of cognitive neuroscience
x2

- Study of the brain and how it relates to thoughts, feelings and behaviour.
- A problem was they relied on inferring mental processes from observable behaviour.

53

Cognitive approach
Evaluation
Strengths x2

- The cognitive approach uses a very scientific method which means the are able to be easily reproducible
- There are many real-life applications such as strategies to improve memory

54

Cognitive approach
Evaluation
Limitations
x2

- The use of lab experiments means the research lacks ecological validity
- Can be seen as over simplifying complex processes

55

The psychodynamic approach
x3

- The unconscious plays an important role in behaviour.
- There are 3 components to the personality
- Early childhood is the most important time in terms of personality formation

56

the role of the unconscious
x2

- Freud suggested that thoughts present in our conscious mind are very few compared to our unconscious mind.
- His theory proposed that the preconscious is between the conscious and unconscious parts, and it functions as a guard between them, only allowing a few thoughts to pass through.

57

The structure of the personality
Id
x4

PLEASURE PRINCIPLE
- Childlike, selfish part
- Demands instant satisfaction of drives
- Present from birth to around 18 months

58

The structure of the personality
Ego
x4

REALITY PRINCIPLE
- Conscious, rational
- Attempts to mediate between demands of id and superego
- Develops between 18 months and 3 years

59

The structure of the personality
Superego
x3

MORALITY PRINCIPLE
- Morals
- Develops between 3 and 6 years

60

Causes of our behaviour
Oral - Description

- Pleasure gained from oral behaviours such as eating and sucking. If a child is weaned from breast feeding too early or late they may become fixated

61

Causes of our behaviour
Oral - consequence
x5

- Sucking your thumb
- Eating disorder
- Chew gum
- Smoking
- Verbally abusive

62

Causes of our behaviour
Anal - Description

- Pleasure gained from expelling or retaining faeces. If parents are too strict about toilet training the child may become over keen to use it.

63

Causes of our behaviour
Anal - consequence
x4

ANAL RETENTIVE
- Stingy, Generally stubborn and perfectionist
ANAL EXPULSIVE
- Lack of self control and messy

64

Causes of our behaviour
Phallic - Description

- Boys develop a sexual desire towards their mother. And terrified dad may hurt them - Oedipus complex

65

Causes of our behaviour
Phallic - consequence
x4

MALES
- Vain, anxiety, jealous
FEMALES
- Continual striving to dominate men, anxious, jealous

66

Causes of our behaviour
Latency - Description

- Libido is dominant. Sexual impulses are repressed or sublimated towards school

67

Causes of our behaviour
Genital - Description

- Sexual desires become conscious alongside the beginning of puberty

68

Psychodynamic
Evaluation
Strengths x2

- Psychodynamic approach was the first approach to propose psychological treatments for disorders.
- Practical application - Psychoanalysis

69

Psychodynamic
Evaluation
Limitations x1

- Many of his concepts are said to occur in the unconscious level which makes it so hard to prove.

70

Psychodynamic
Evaluation
Limitations x1

- Many of his concepts are said to occur in the unconscious level which makes it so hard to prove.

71

The humanistic approach
x2

- An individual's behaviour can only be understood with respect to their own unique way of perceiving and understanding the world
- We are active agents who have the ability to determine our own development

72

The self
x3

-Rogers distinguished between an individuals perceived self and their ideal self
- Incongruent person is someone who has a large gap between their perceived self and ideal self
- Congruent person is someone who has a small/no gap between their perceived self and ideal self

73

Self-actualisation

- Rogers believed that every individual drives to achieve his or her full potential, therefore achieve self-actualisation. However, to achieve this the person has to be congruent

74

Conditions of worth
x2

- Rogers suggests that our perceived self is linked to our perception of how others view us.
- If a child grew up with unconditioned positive regard they will feel valued and would have a positive self-perception

75

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

-Philosophical needs
- Safety needs
- Belonging needs
- Esteem needs
- Self- actualization

76

Humanistic approach
Evaluation
Strengths x2

- Refreshing optimistic alternative, it sees all people as being good
- The approach allows for personal development and change throughout their lifespan.

77

Humanistic approach
Evaluation
Limitations x1

- Ideas of the approach are hard to test scientifically which makes it difficult to support them

78

Mediational - R

retentive
- Code behaviour by placing it into LTM

79

Mediational - R

REPRODUCTION
- Capable of reproducing the model's behaviour