Flashcards in Origins of the Cold War 1941-48 Deck (22):
What and when were the three conferences held to discuss the future of the world after WW2?
Yalta- February 1945
Potsdam- July-August 1945
What was agreed at the Tehran Conference in 1943?
They were planning a winning strategy for the war so the Grand Alliance agreed to cooperate.
The USA and GB would invade Nazi occupied France at the earliest chance.
The USSR would attack Japan.
They would set up the UN.
What was agreed at the Yalta Conference in February 1945?
Land and control were negotiated:
-USSR would attack Japan within 3 months of defeating Germany.
-German war criminals would be punished
-Germany would be split into four zones. Berlin and Vienna would also be split into four, despite being in the USSR’s zone. The zones would be controlled by Britain, the USA, USSR and France.
-Poland lost 30% of its land, claimed by Stalin, but was given a large part of Eastern Germany.
-Free elections in Poland and Soviet occupied countries.
-New UN being based in NYC.
Who replaced FDR as President of the USA for the Potsdam Conference? What were his views?
Harry Truman. He was suspicious of Communism and did not like Stalin.
Churchill had recently lost the recent UK election and was replaced by Clement Attlee.
What was decided at the Potsdam Conference in July-August 1945?
-Former Nazis were put on trial for war crimes.
-Germans in Eastern Europe were to be sent back to Germany.
-Germany would pay war reparations to the allies, most to the USSR.
-Free elections and press in Germany.
What created tension at the Potsdam Conference in July-August 1945?
-Change of leaders.
-Stalin wanted influence in Poland.
-The USA used the atom bomb on Japan without telling the USSR (who were supposed to invade Japan).
When did the USA use the atomic bombs on Japan? What were the consequences of the USA using the atomic bomb against Japan?
August 1945, during the Potsdam Conference.
1) WW2 came to an end.
2) Growing suspicion and competition between the USA and the USSR from 1945-1947.
3) The USSR built their own atom bomb and the arms race began.
4) The USSR tightened its control over countries it occupied in Eastern Europe.
In what year did the USSR develop its own atomic bomb?
What did George Kennan’s Long Telegram say about the USSR in 1946?
The USSR was expanding its control and was aggressively trying to take over land in Europe.
What did the USSR’s Novikov telegram say about the USA, in response to George Kennan's Long Telegram?
The USA were aggressive and looking to dominate the world with its power.
What Eastern European countries became Satellite States of the USSR from 1944 to 1948?
Poland, East Germany, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and 6 other countries.
How did Stalin take control of the satellite states and what are they?
The Red Army had freed many Eastern European countries from Nazi occupation, setting up temporary governments. Stalin didn't ever give up these governments and just made the countries communist.There were also rigged elections, and communists took key roles in coalition governments.
A sattelite state is an area or country with formal independence but under heavy political, cultural and economic control from another country.
What did Winston Churchill famously say, in 1946, was happening in Europe?
An ‘Iron Curtain’ was developing between capitalist and Communist countries.
How did the USA view the USSR’s creation of “Satellite States”?
Truman saw this as evidence that Stalin was aggressively attempting to spread communism throughout Europe. This worsened relations.
What was Stalin’s justification for Satellite States?
That the satellite states were a buffer zone between the USSR and the West, protecting against future invasion.
He claimed that communism was good for the people.
What was the main message of the Truman Doctrine Speech in 1947?
What was happening in Greece and Turkey that moved Truman to make his speech when he did?
To contain the spread of communism.
Civil War and communist uprisings. Britain couldn’t deal with the situation so the USA had to step in.
What was the purpose of the Marshall Plan?
To help Europe recover from war and stop communism It was also to guarantee countries' loyalty to the USA.
What are three examples of countries receiving money as a consequence of the Marshall Plan?
UK - almost $3,300 million
West Germany - almost $1,450 million
France - almost $2,300 million
What was the importance of the Marshall Plan for the world?
-It increased the USSR’s determination to secure influence of its own.
-It increased the divide between Communist and capitalist countries because the USSR pressured their satellite states to reject Marshall Aid.
-It led to the USSR setting up cominform and then later comecon.
What country had a Communist coup, when and why?
Czechoslovakia in February 1948. It had been the only Eastern European democracy before WW2 and a coalition government was trying to restore this afterwards. Stalin was threatened by this so supported the coup. The new government was led by Klement Gottwald.
What was the purpose of the USSR’s Cominform?
To spread communism and control the economies of communist states.