- PEL- permissble exposure limit for an eight-hour day time weighted average (TWA)- .75ppm
- STEL- short term exposure limit for a 15-minute period- 2ppm
- Action Level- .5ppm
- PPM- Parts per million (one part of formaldehyde to one million parts of air).
Permissible Exposure Limits to Airborne Concentrations of Formaldehyde:
Shall be monitored for initial compliance with the standard and repeated each time there is a change in personnel or work practices that may result in additional exposure to formaldehyde.
Airborne Concentraions of Formaldehyde
This shall be monitored promptly.
An Employee that Reports Symptoms of Overexposure to Formaldehyde
Shall be identified and monitored OR a representative sampling strategy shall be used.
Each Worker Exposed to Formaldehyde
If this is used, it shall be conducted seprately for each shift unless objective data can be used to document that exposure levels are equivalent for different work shifts.
Shall be conducted when exposure to formaldehyde is at maximum levels in the preparation room.
- At the 95 percent confidence level
- To within plus or minus 25 perfent for airborne concentrations of formaldehyde at the TWA and STEL.
- To within plus or minus 35 percent for airborne concentrations of formaldehyde at the action level.
Accuracy: Monitoring Equipment Shall Meet the Following OSHA Specifications for Accuracy:
- The date and time conducted
- The monitoring method used
- Evidence that the monitoring equipment used meets OSHA specifications
- The name, job title and social security number of the employee being monitored
- The procedures being performed
- The types of engineering controls and protective equipment being used.
Documentation: Monitoring Shall be Carefully Documented, Including:
Employees shall be notified in writing of monitoring results within this time frame. If exposure exceeds permissible levels, the notice shall contain a description of the corrective action being taken.
15 Days of Receipt
Good engineering controls and work practices shall be maintained; and training and other programs required under the standard shall be continued.
The 8 Hour TWA level is below .5ppm (action level) and the 15-minute level is below 2ppm (STEL)
Immediate steps shall be taken to reduce exposure; periodic PEL monitoring shall be conducted at least every 6 months as long as exposure remains above the action level; medical surveillance of exposed employees shall be instituted.
The 8 hour TWA level is below .75ppm (PEL), but above the .5ppm (action level); and the 15 minute level is below 2ppm (STEL):
- A written plan shall be developed for immediate reduction of exposure levels;
- immediate steps shall be taken to reduce exposure;
- if levels cannot be reduced immediately, repirators shall be provided and a respirator program shall be implemented in compliance with OSHA standards,
- the warning shall be posted on the door to the preparation room
- periodic PEL monitoring shall be conducted at least every 6 months as long as exposure remains above the action level;
- Periodic STEL monitoring shall be conducted under worst conditions at least once a year;
- Medical surveillance of exposed employees shall be insitiuted
The 8 hour TWA level is above .75ppm (PEL); and/or the 15-minute level is about 2ppm (STEL)
DANGER FORMALDEHYDE IRRITANT AND POTENTIAL CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY
The Warning: (Know word for word)
Periodic monitoring and routine medical surveillance shall be terminated if permissible levels are demonstrated from PEL and STEL tests repeated twice at least seven days apart.
Under Scenaries 1 and 2
Shall be continued for any employee reporting signs and symptoms of over exposure REGARDLESS of formaldehyde levels in the work area.
- Engineering controls
- Protective clothing and equipment
- Safe work practices
- Hygiene Protection
All work areas in which formaldehyde is used shall be properly ventilated.
With liquids containing 1% or more formaldehyde shall be prevented by the use of chemical protective clothing made of material impervious to formaldehyde and the use of goggles and face shields, as appropriate to the task being performed.
Contact to the Eyes and Skin
That has becoe contaminated with formaldehyde shall be cleaned or laundered before reuse. Containers for contaminated clothing and equipment shall be properly labeled. Only persons trained to recognize the hazards of formaldehyde shall handle contaminated clothing and equipment. Workers shall not remove contaminated clothing or equipment from designated work or storage areas.
Protective Clothing and Eqipment
Shall be repaired or replaced as necessary to assure its effectiveness.
- Keeping the lid on the embalming machine
- Keeping caps on bottles
- Treating autopsy viscera in a covered pail or closed viscera bag
- Keeping waste or drainage sinks covered when in use
- Connecting the drainage tube and the table drain with rubber tubing to reduce fumes in the embalmer's breathing zone
- Keeping waste receptacles covered
- Covering the area with light plastic and sealing it with adhesive tape to contain fumes when a cavity pack or external perserative is used
- Adding ammonia to cleanup buckets to neutralize any traces of formaldehyde that might be picked up by a rag or mop
- painting wood positioning blocks with epoxy paint to avoid saturation with formaldehyde
- reporting leaks or worn hoses on the embalming machine immediately
Safe Work Practices (steps taken at all times to avoid putting formaldehyde fumes into the atmosphere)
Shall be provided for employees who are required to use protective clothing. This shall have storage facilities for street clothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing.
If workers' skin might be splashed with solutions containing ___ ___ ______ of formaldehyde; a quick drench shower shall be provided. If workers' eyes might be splashed with ___ ___ _____ of formaldehyde, an eyewash station shall be provided.
1% or Greater
- Located in the immediate work area
- Capable of delivering a continual 15 to 20 minute flow of clean, cool water directed to the area of the body where needed
- Easily activated with one hand and sustained on a hands-free basis
The Eyewash and Shower Facilities Shall be:
Regular ___ ____ of equipment shall be conducted to detect leaks, spills and wear. Needed repairs shall be made immediately. A written record of inspections and repairs shall be maintained.
- Health Hazards
- Written Plan
- Signs and Labels
- Material Safety Data Sheets
Workers shall immediately report the development fo any adverse signs or symptoms suspected to be attributable to formladehyde exposure.
In humans, formaldehyde exposure has been determined to cause cancers of the lung, nasopharynx and oropharynx, and nasal passages. Repeated and prolonged exposure increases the risk.
Formalin is a severe skin irritant and sensitizer. Contact can cause white discoloration, smarting, drying, cracking and scaling. Prolonged and repeated contact can cause numbness and a hardening or tanning of the skin. Other forms of dermititis may be symptomatic of exposure to formaldehyde.
Formaldehyde is highly irritating to the upper respiratory tract and the eyes. Inhalation may cause tearing of the eyes, difficulty in breathing, burning of the nose and throat, and coughing. A concentration of 100ppm is immediately dangerous to life and health.
Formaldehyde solutions splashed in the eye can cause injuries ranging from discomfort to severe, permanent corneal clouding and loss of vision.
Prolonged or repeated exposure to formaldehyde may result in respiratory impairment. Persons may develop asthma or bronchitis following exposure to formaldehyde.
Contains a description of steps taken for compliance with:
- labeling and signage requirements
- material safety data sheet requirements
- employee information and training requirements
Containers for clothing or equipment contaminated with formaldehyde shall be marked with signage containing the following information (word for word):
DANGER FORMALDEHYDE-CONTAMINATED CLOTHING/EQUIPMENT AVOID INHALATION AND SKIN CONTACT
Signs and labels
- Identify that the product contains formaldehyde
- List the name and address of the responsible party
- State that physical and health hazard information is readily available from the employer and MSDSs
Labels for Materials Capable of Releasing Formaldehyde at Levels of .1ppm to .5ppm Shall:
Shall include complete information on health hazards, including respiratory sensitization and shall contain the words "Potential Cancer Hazard."
Label For Materials Capable of Releasing Formaldehyde at Levels Above .5ppm:
If the victim is conscious, give milk, activated charcoal, or water. Keep the person warm and at rest. Get medical attention immediately. If vomiting occurs, keep head lower than hips.
UNPROTECTED WORKERS SHALL NOT PUT THEMSELVES AT RISK TO ASSIST ANOTHER WORKER. If safe, remove the victim from the exposure area to fresh air immediately. If concentrations may be very high, a self-contained breathing apparatus must be worn by the rescuer. Get rescue and/or medical attention immediately. If breathing has stopped, give artificial respiration. Keep the person warm and at rest.
Remove all contaminated clothing (including shoes) immediately. Wash the affected area with soap or mild detergent and large amounts of water (at least 15 to 20 minutes). Cover chemical burns with sterile, dry dressing and bandages. Get medical attention if the victim experiences appreciable eye or respiratory irritation.
Wash the eyes immediately with large amounts of water occasionally lifting lower and upper lids (at least 15 to 20 minutes). Apply sterile bandages loosly without medication to burns. Get medical attention immediately.
- Annually for all employees exposed to formaldehyde at concetrations at or exceeding the action level or exceeding the STEL
- Immediately for all employes reporting signs or symptoms of overexposure to formaldehyde.
Medical Surveillance Shall be Initiated:
Shall consist of the administration of a medical disease questionnaire and medical examination if deemed necessary by the physician. The program shall be carried out under the supervision of a licensed physician and shall be provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at a reasonable time and place.
The Medical Surveillance Program
- A copy of the formaldehyde standard and its appendices
- A description of the worker's job duties
- The representative exposure level in the work area,
- Information on protective clothing and equipment used by the employee
- Information on previous medical examinations relating to occupational safety and health with the firm.
In the Event of a Medical Examination, the Physician Shall be Provided With:
The physician shall be furnished immediately with a description of how the emergency occurred and the exposure the victim may have recieved. Additional required information previously listed shall be furnished as soon as possible.
In the Event of an Emergency
- A risk assessment of further exposure to formaldehyde
- Recommended limitations on exposure or changes in use of personal protective clothing or equipment
- A statement that the worker has been informed of the physician's findings
A Written Opinion Shall be Obtained Including:
A copy of the physician's written opinion shall be provided to the affected worker within ___ ___ of receipt. Workers shall be notified promptly after an initial physical examination of their right to seek a second medical opinion.
Shall not apply in the case of dermal irritation or dermal sensitization when the product suspected of causing the dermal condition contains less than .05% formaldehyde.
Medical Removal Provisions
The worker shall be transferred to a position having no or significantly less exposure to formaldehyde. All transfer alternatives shall be considered before separation alternatives are considered.
If the Physician Finds, Within the Parameters set Forth in the Standard, That a Worker Should be Removed From Current Formaldehyde Exposure:
To take place 6 months after the removal.
A Follow-up Medical Evaluation Shall be Arranged
Earnings, senority and benefits shall be maintained until a medical determination is made that the worker is able to return to the original job, will never be able to return to work in the preparation room, or for six months, whichever occurs first.
Regardless of Alternative Persued:
Shall be provided for all workers with exposure to .1ppm or greater of formaldehyde.
Initial and Annual Training
- A discussion of the formaldehyde exposure standard and MSDSs
- The purpose for and a description fo the medical surveillance program
- A description of potential health hazards and signs and symptoms of exposure to formaldehyde
- Requirements to immediately report adverse signs or symptoms that may be attributable to formaldehyde exposure
- A description of engineering controls, use of protective clothing and equipment, safe work practices and housekeeping necessary to minimize exposure
- Instruction for handling spills, leaks and emergencies
- A review of emergency procedures
Information and Training Provided Shall Consist of:
Shall be informed of the location and availability of written training materials at no cost to employees.
All Employees Exposed to Formaldehyde
Shall be documented by the trainer and the trainee.
Shall be kept for at least 30 years
Exposure Level Records and Determinations
Shall be kept for the duration of employment plus 30 years.
Shall be kept until replaced by a more recent record.
Respirator Fit Testing Records
Shall be made available to the employee or OSHA upon request.