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Flashcards in Osmosis and Diffusion Deck (23):
1

Exocytosis

Exocytosis is a process in which an intracellular vesicle (membrane bounded sphere) moves to the plasma membrane and subsequent fusion of the vesicular membrane and plasma membrane ensues. Many cellular processes involve exocytosis.

2

Phagocytosis

Is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome.

3

Contractile Valcuole

A contractile vacuole (abbreviation: CV) is a sub-cellular structure (organelle) involved in osmoregulation. It is found predominantly in protists and in unicellular algae. It was previously known as pulsatile or pulsating vacuole.

4

Osmosis

Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.

5

Facilitated Diffusion

Facilitated diffusion (also known as facilitated transport or passive-mediated transport) is the process of spontaneous passive transport (as opposed to active transport) of molecules or ions across a biological membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.

6

Plasmolysis

Plasmolysis is the process in which cells lose water in a hypertonic solution. The reverse process, cytolysis, can occur if the cell is in a hypotonic solution resulting in a lower external osmotic pressure and a net flow of water into the cell.

7

Vesicle

A small fluid-filled bladder, sac, cyst, or vacuole within the body

8

Concentration Degraident

The formal definition of concentration gradient is the process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area of higher number of particles to an area of lower number of particles. The areas are typically separated by a membrane.

9

Equilibrium

Everything is equal

10

Turgor Pressure

Turgor pressure pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall of plant, bacteria, and fungi cells as well as those protist cells which have cell walls.

11

Phagocyte

A type of cell within the body capable of engulfing and absorbing bacteria and other small cells and particles.

12

Endocytosis

The taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole.

13

Ion Channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins whose functions include establishing a resting membrane potential, shaping action potentials and other electrical signals by gating the flow of ions across the cell membrane, controlling the flow of ions across secretory and epithelial cells, and regulating cell volume.

14

Cytolysis

Cytolysis, or osmotic lysis, occurs when a cell bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to move into the cell.

15

Isotonic

Where water moves across the cell membrane equally

16

Hypotonic

In a hypotonic solution the total molar concentration of all dissolved solute particles is less than that of another solution or less than that of a cell. If concentrations of dissolved solutes are less outside the cell than inside, the concentration of water outside is correspondingly greater.

17

Hypertonic

There are three types of solutions that can occur in your body based on solute concentration: isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic. An isotonic solution is one in which the concentration of solutes is the same both inside and outside of the cell.

18

Diffusion

Diffusion refers to the process by which molecules intermingle as a result of their kinetic energy of random motion. Consider two containers of gas A and B separated by a partition. The molecules of both gases are in constant motion and make numerous collisions with the partition.

19

Passive Transport

Transports across the cell membrane without using energy

20

Active Transport

Transports across the cell membrane with energy, usually in the form of ATP

21

Sodium Potassium Pump

Can change shape to allow thins through the cell membrane

22

Pinocytosis

In cellular biology, pinocytosis (pino- + cytosis), otherwise known as cell drinking, fluid endocytosis, and bulk-phase pinocytosis, is a mode of endocytosis in which small particles are brought into the cell, forming an invagination, and then suspended within small vesicles.

23

Carrier Protein

Channel proteins facilitate the diffusion of different molecules, while carrier proteins are involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.