Other Gram Negatives, spirochetes, and zoonotics Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Other Gram Negatives, spirochetes, and zoonotics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Other Gram Negatives, spirochetes, and zoonotics Deck (42):
1

Campylobacter algorithm findings
Gram
Shape
Oxidase
Grows at which temperature

Gram Negative
**Comma shaped
Oxidase +
Grows at 42 degrees C

2

Major symptom of campylobacter? Which patient population

Major cause of BLOODY DIARRHEA in CHILDREN

3

Transmission of campylobacter? Through which foods?
Antecedent to which other diseases (2)

Fecal-oral transmission through foods such as poultry, meat, and unpasteurized milk
Common antecedent to Guillain-Barre syndrome and reactive arthritis

4

Vibrio cholerae
gram stain
shape
oxidase
growth media

Gram negative
Comma shaped (curved rod)
oxidase +
grows in ALKALINE media

5

What is Vibrio best known for causing? How does this come about good sir? Walk me through the whole bit from toxin to diarrhea

Profuse, "rice-water" diarrhea.

The vibrio toxin ADP-sibsylates the G(s) -alpha subunit. This G(s)-a subunit activates adenylyl cyclase but cannot hydrolyze the bound GTP to GDP. Therefore, the G(s)-a subunit continuously activates adenylyl cyclase which increases cAMP levels and overactivates PKA. PKA phosphorylates the CFTR chloride channel which increases chloride secretion and causes the subsequent water efflux and characteristic "rice water diarrhea"

6

Yersinia enterocolitica lab findings
gram
shape
lactose
oxidase

Gram negative rod
lactose negative
oxidase negative
(similar to shigella and salmonella)

7

How is Y. enterocolitica trasmitted (3)?
What does Y. enterocolitica cause?

Transmitted through PET FECES (dogs), contaminated milk, or pork
Causes MESENTERIC ADENITIS that can mimic Crohn disease or appendicitis

8

Lab findings for H. pylori
catalase, oxidase, urease

Curved, gram negative rod
catalase +
oxidase +
**urease +

9

H. pylori causes what? These patients are at risk for what (3)?

Causes gastritis and peptic ulcers (usually duoedenal)
Patients at risk for peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, and lymphoma

10

Best ways to diagnose H. pylori (2)

Urease breath test
Fecal antigen

11

How to treat H. pylori?

Triple Therapy: PPI + 2 antibiotics
Antibiotics choice: Clarithromycin + amoxicillin or metronidazole

12

What are spirochetes? Which three do I care about

Spiral-shaped bacteria with axial filaments
Borrelia (big one)
Leptospira
Treponema

13

Where is leptospira interrogans found and what does it cause

Found in water contaminated with animal urine (rats) and causes leptosporosis

14

What are the symptoms of leptosporosis (4)?

ILI
Jaundice
Photophobia
**Conjunctival suffusion (means erythema without exudate)...this is not a common symptom for anything except leptosporosis and maybe Hanta virus

15

What is Weil Disease...no not Alison

Icterohemorrhagic leptosporosis...severe leptosporosis

16

What are the symptoms of Weil Disease (5)

Jaundice (liver dysfunction)
Azotemia (renal dysfunction)
Fever
Hemorrhage
Anemia

17

What spirochete causes Lyme Disease...which tick transmits this? This tick also transmits which other disease?

Borrelia burgdoferi
The tick is Ixodes...also transmits Babesia

18

What is the natural reservoir for borrelia? Where is this disease common?

Mouse
Northeast and Midwest (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois

19

Initial symptoms of Lyme Disease (3)

Erythema chronicum migrans (Bulls Eye rash)
ILI/flu
+/- facial nerve palsy

20

Late Symptoms of Lyme disease (4)

Monoarthritis--large joints
Migratory polyarthritis
Cardiac--AV block
Neurologic-- encephalopathy, facial palsy, polyneuropathy)

21

Major symptom mnemonic for Lyme disease:
"FAKE a key LYME pie"

Facial nerve palsy
Arthritis
Kardiac block
Erythema migrans

22

Treatment for Lyme disease

Doxycycline (oral for early)
ceftriaxone (IV for late)

23

What does Treponema pallidum cause and how do I kill it?

Causes Syphilis you useless reptile and you kill it with PCN G

24

Primary syphilis primary symptom
Best way to see T. pallidum? Best sample?

**Painless chancre (not sure how an ulcerated lesion on yo dick is painless but whatevs)
**Dark-field microscopy on fluid from the chancre**

25

Serological testing for primary or secondary syphilis?

VDRL/RPR initially (non-specific)
Confirm with specific test (FTA-ABS)

26

What does VDRL/RPR and FTA-ABS stand for?

Venereal disease research laboratory test
Rapid Plasma Reagin
fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption

27

Symptoms of secondary syphilis (3)

Disseminated disease
Maculppapular rash (palms and soles)
Condylomata lata

28

Which state of syphilis follows secondary syphilis?

Latent syphilis--? +serology without symptoms

29

Symptoms of tertiary syphilis (4)

Gumma (chronic granulomas on skin...nasty and obvious)
Aortitis --> vasa vasorum destruction
Neurosyphilis --> tabes dorsalis
Argyll Robertson pupil --> accommodates but does not react to light

30

Signs of tertiary syphilis (4)

Broad-based ataxia --> from instability
+Romberg --> same reason
Charcot joint
"Stroke without HTN"

31

How to diagnose neurosyphilis?

VDRL or RPR on spinal tap

32

Congenital syphilis signs (5)
How to prevent

Saber Shins
Saddle nose
CN VIII deafness
Hutchinson teeth
Mulberry molars

Treat mother in first trimester

33

When can neurosyphilis occur? When can transmission occur?

Any stage

34

What causes "VDRL" false positives? 4

Viruses (EBV, hepatitis)
Drugs
Rheumatic fever
Lupus and Leprosy

35

What does the VDRL test test for?

Nonspecific antibody to beef cardiolipin...sensitive but not specific

36

What inflammatory flu-like syndrome that resembles bacterial sepsis is classically associated with syphilis after starting PCN and other spirochete diseases?

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction.
Monitor closely and give anti-inflammatory meds...steroids don't work

37

Leptosporosis is prevalent among which demographic?

"Surfer's in the tropics (ie. Hawaii)

38

What does Gardnerella vaginalis look like? What is it involved with?

Pleomorphic, gram-variable rod
Vaginosis

39

How does Gardnerella vaginalis present?

Gray vaginal discharge with a fishy smell
Non-painful

40

G. vaginalis is associated with what?
How is it characterized?

Associated with sexual activity but not an STD
Characterized by anaerobic bacterial overgrowth in the vagina

41

Best way to diagnose G. Vaginalis?

You mean other than a fishy smell from the vagina?
CLUE cells (vaginal epithelial cells that are literally covered with Gardnerella)

42

How to kill/treat G. vaginalis?

Metronidazole or
Clindamycin