Outcome 15 Disorders of the Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Outcome 15 Disorders of the Female Reproductive System Deck (106):
1

female infertility can occur due to ____ or other infection of the reproductive organs

STI

2

female infertility can also occur due to ___ or failure to ovulate

ovulatory dysfunction

3

female infertility can also occur due to blocked ____

fallopian tubes

4

female infertility can also occur due to congenital ____ or ___ disorders

structural or chromosomal

5

female infertility can also occur due to ____ from infection, ectopic pregnancy or surgery

scar tissue

6

disorder that can cause female infertility

endometriosis

7

female infertility can also occur due to ____ in vaginal secretions

antisperm antibodies

8

female infertility can also occur due to ___ distress

psychological

9

treatment for female infertility: ____ of menstrual cycle to establish ovulatory function

charting

10

diagnostic procedure for female infertility: blood tests to assess ____ levels

hormone

11

3 surgical procedures for female infertility

1. hysterosalpingography
2. laparoscopy
3. surgery to remove blockages

12

family of drugs to treat female infertility

fertility drugs

13

2 other treatments for female infertility

1. IUI
2. IVF

14

premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is caused by fluctuating levels of ___ and ____ and their resultant impact on ____

estrogen; progesterone; neurotransmitter

15

in premenstrual syndrome (PMS), oral contraceptives may provide some relief if they have ___ and ___

estrogen; drospirenone

16

diagnosis when PMS becomes severe and fits certain psychological criteria

premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

17

amenorrhea where there is no menses by the age of 16

primary amenorrhea

18

3 causes of primary amenorrhea

1. late onset of puberty
2. abnormality of the reproductive systems
3. hormonal imbalances

19

amenorrhea where there is no menses after a woman has been having menstrual cycles

secondary amenorrhea

20

secondary amenorrhea is mainly ____ related, but must rule out other causes

hormone

21

amenorrhea with failure to resume menses within 3 months of discontinuation of OCPs

"postpill" amenorrhea

22

2 types of dysmenorrhea

1. primary
2. secondary

23

onset of dysmenorrhea with the initiation of menses

primary dysmenorrhea

24

primary dysmenorrhea is thought to be due to the underlying ____ of the uterus and how it reacts to ____ produced in the menstrual cycle

muscular structure; chemicals

25

dysmenorrhea that occurs after years of normal, non-painful menses

secondary dysmenorrhea

26

2 causes of secondary dysmenorrhea

1. underlying disorder
2. disease condition

27

3 disease conditions that may cause secondary dysmenorrhea

1. fibroids
2. PID
3. endometriosis

28

2 main types of ovarian cysts

1. physiologic cysts
2. neoplastic cysts

29

2 causes of physiologic cysts

1. ovarian follicle growth
2. more common: corpus luteum that persists too long

30

ovarian cysts that are benign or malignant neoplasms

neoplastic cysts

31

2 surgical treatment options for ovarian cysts

1. laparoscopic drainage or removal
2. more extensive surgery for malignant cysts

32

extrauterine endometrial tissue; most commonly in the pelvis

endometriosis

33

the most likely cause of endometriosis

retrograde menstruation

34

initial infection in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is usually a ____ and then becomes multibacterial

STI

35

can result in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) if early treatment is not done

adhesion formation

36

2 end results in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) if adhesions form in and around the fallopian tubes

1. infertility
2. increased risk of ectopic pregnancy

37

are uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) malignant or benign

benign

38

t or f. the cause of uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) is unknown

t

39

treatment options for uterine leiomyomas (fibroids)

1. myomectomy (surgical removal of the tumor)
2. uterine artery embolization (UAE)
3. endometrial ablation
4 hysterectomy

40

2 infectious causes of TSS

1. staphylococcus aureus
2. streptococcal toxic-like syndrome

41

in toxic shock syndrome (TSS), toxins produced by the bacteria actually causing the disease

streptococcal toxic-like syndrome

42

toxic shock syndrome (TSS) can occur due to an increase in ____ on ____ tampons

staphylococcal colonization; super absorbent

43

medication given to treat toxic shock syndrome (TSS)

IV vancomycin

44

average age of menopause occurrence

50-51

45

menopause is considered premature when occurring before ___ years of age

40

46

condition where women who are still menstruating but have the symptoms of menopause

perimenopause

47

menopause following ovary removal, or that caused by chemotherapy and/or radiation treatment for certain cancers

surgical menopause

48

hormone treatment for menopause symptoms are considered controversial because it raises the risk of developing ____

certain cancers

49

hormone treatment may be considered for ____ use during the period when ____ are the worst

short-term; symptoms

50

most common cause of vaginitis is ____

fungal infection

51

protozoa that can cause vaginitis

trichomonas

52

atrophic vaginitis occurs due to absence of ____ in postmenopausal women

estrogen

53

uterus is completely outside of the vagina

complete procidentia

54

uterine prolapse occurs due to the ___ becoming extremely overstretched or weakened from trauma due to childbirth, aging, or genetic factors

normal support of the uterus

55

the use of this therapeutic device that may help with symptoms of uterine prolapse

pessary

56

the only way to permanently correct uterine prolapse

hysterectomy

57

surgical treatment for young women with uterine prolapse hoping to preserve fertility

hysteropexy

58

displacement and protrusion of the urinary bladder into the *anterior wall*

cystocele

59

protrusion of the rectum into the *posterior wall* of the vagina

rectocele

60

2 main symptoms of cervical cancer

1. vaginal discharge
2. bleeding

61

vaginal discharge present in cervical cancer can be these 3 things

1. watery
2. bloody
3. purulent

62

bleeding present in cervical cancer can occur during these 3 periods

1. between periods
2. after intercourse
3. after menopause

63

most common sign of cervical cancer

abnormal Pap smear result

64

most significant risk factor for cervical cancer

oncogenic types of HPV

65

premalignant lesions to cervical cancer

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

66

4 treatment options for cervical cancer

1. LEEP
2. laser therapy
3. cryoabolation
4. radical hysterectomy and chemotherapy

67

4 risk factors for ovarian cancer

1. patient Hx of breast cancer
2. family Hx of breast and ovarian cancers
3. BRCA 1 & BRCA 2 mutations
4. HNPCC

68

4 risk factors for endometrial cancer

1. age: postmenopausal women
2. HNPCC
3. type 2 diabetes (could be a direct cause)
4. HTN

69

there is one type of endometrial cancer that is related to cumulative exposure to ____

excess estrogen

70

fibrocystic breast condition is also known as ____

fibrocystic breast disease

71

fibrocystic breast condition generally occurs between these ages

30-50 years old

72

fibrocystic breast condition occurs due to ___

unknown

73

mastitis that is often caused by strep or staphy infection that is almost always associated with breasfeeding

acute puerperal mastitis

74

is fibroadenoma of the breast benign or malignant?

benign tumor of the breast

75

cause of fibroadenoma of the breast is unknown, but tomors are ____, growing in size during menstruation or during pregnancy

hormonally responsive

76

area of the breast where cancer usually arises

terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU)

77

the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU) is the ____ unit of breast tissue

functional

78

5 physical signs and symptoms of breast cancer

1. lump
2. swelling
3. tenderness of the breast
4. irritation or dimpling of the skin (peau d'orange)
5. pain, ulceration, or retraction of the nipple

79

2 greatest risk factors for breast cancer

1. increased age
2. female gender

80

3 other risk factors for breast cancer

1. hormonal
2. reproductive
3. genetic factors

81

the precursor lesion to breast cancer

ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

82

3 specific characteristics of breast cancer to inform prognosis and treatment needs

1. estrogen receptor positive/negative
2. progesterone receptor positive/negative
3. HER2 positive/negative

83

6 treatment options for breast cancer

1. lumpectomy
2. mastectomy (partial, total or radical)
3. removal of some axillary lymph nodes
4. hormone therapy depending on the estrogen/progesterone receptor status
5. herceptin for HER2 positive tumors
6. chemotherapy

84

disease of the breast that is a malignant lesion in the nipple of the breast

paget's disease

85

constellation of physical and emotional symptoms that may appear shortly after ovulation and subside with onset of menstruation or shortly thereafter

premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

86

absence of menstrual periods, whether temporary or permanent

amenorrhea

87

common gynecologic disorder; pain and cramping associated with menstruation affecting about 50% of post-pubertal women

dysmenorrhea

88

fluid filled, semisolid or solid masses that originate on or within the ovary

ovarian cysts

89

chronic condition characterized by extrauterine endometrial tissue

endometriosis

90

infection of a woman's pelvis

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

91

3 areas involved in PID

1, tubes
2. ovaries
3. surrounding tissue

92

noncancerous tumors of the smooth muscle within the uterus

uterine leiomyoma (fibroids)

93

inflammation and/or infection of the vaginal tissues

vaginitis

94

acute, systemic infection

toxic shock syndrome (TSS)

95

cessation of menstrual periods for 1 year with evidence of ovarian failure

menopause (climacteric)

96

downward displacement of the uterus from its normal location in the pelvis

uterine prolapse

97

most cervical cancers are ___ that arise in the transitional zone between the different epithelial types of the uterus corpus and vagina

squamous cell carcinomas

98

primary ovarian tumors usually derive from epithelial cells

ovarian cancer

99

involves lining of the uterus, which undergoes cyclic changes as a result of hormonal stimulation

endometrial cancer

100

common, benign breast disorder related to normal hormonal variation

fibrocystic breast condition/disease

101

inflammation of one or more mammary glands of the breast

mastitis

102

in fibroadenoma, there is a mass in the breast with these 4 criteria

1. firm
2. round
3. encapsulated
4. movable

103

usually arises from the TDLU which is very hormonally responsive

cancer of breast

104

earliest sign of breast cancer

abnormality on a mammogram

105

breast cancer in advanced stages: nodule becomes ___ and ___ develop

fixed to the chest wall; axillary masses and ulceration

106

characteristic breast lesion that signifies presence of malignant adenocarcinoma cells

paget's disease of the breast