Outcome 1a Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Outcome 1a Deck (54):
1

What is a motor skill

Special form of skill require movement of the body limbs to achieve a goal

2

Categories of movement precision

Gross
Fine

3

Fine motor skills

Recruitment of small muscle groups and focuses on precision

4

Gross motor skills

Recruit large muscle groups.
Accuracy is important, less precision

5

Categories of movement type

Discrete
Serial
Continuous

6

Discrete skills

Have a definitive beginning and end
Brief in duration

7

Serial skill

Combination of several discrete skills performed in a specific sequence to create a more complex skill

8

Continuous skill

Have no definitive beginning or end
Start and Finnish can be assigned but actual skill is continuous

9

Categories of predicting environment

Open and closed environment

10

Closed motor skill

Predictable and self paced environment.
Performer has control of all external factors

11

Open motor skill

Performed in an unpredictable, high variability environment.
Performer has little to no control of external factors

12

Fundamental motor skills

Foundation skills that provide the basis for the development of sport specific skills.

13

Fundamental skill classification

Stability skills (balance and body control)
Locomotive skills
Manipulative skills

14

Three stages of learning

Cognitive
Associative
Autonomous

15

Cognitive stage

Stiff movement
Low error detection and correction
High learning rate
Large errors

16

Associative stage

More error detection
Less variability
Refining movement pattern
Focus more on environment

17

Autonomous

Focus almost completely on external factors
Skill requires little to no conscious thought
High error detection and correction

18

Coaching cognitive stage

Close environment
Part and whole practice
Frequent feedback
Use demonstrations
Blocked massed practice

19

Coaching associative

Slowly open up environment
Add more variability to task
More constraints based coaching

20

Coaching autonomous

Precise feedback
Random distributed practice
Problem based learning

21

Categories of practice distribution

Massed
Distributed

22

Massed practice

Less frequent but long sessions
Continuous practise of discrete skills
Little or no rest in between tasks

23

Distributed practice

Short and frequent sessions
Practice periods followed by rest periods
Highly fatiguing activities

24

Categories of variability

Blocked
Random

25

Blocked practice

Practicing same skill repetitively in the same conditions or a period of time.

Each skills practice in isolation of other skills

26

Random practice

Varied sequencing of discrete skills. Same skill never performed twice consequently.

27

Types of feedback

Concurrent
Terminal
Intrinsic
Augmented
Knowledge of results
Knowledge of performance

28

Intrinsic feedback

Feedback derived from the performers internal senses. (Visual, auditory or proprioception)

29

Augmented feedback

Feedback derived from a source other then the performer
(Coach, teacher, pt)

30

Knowledge of results

Feedback derived from the outcome of the performance

31

Knowledge of performance

Feedback on the execution of the skill and the skill characteristics

32

Concurrent

Feedback received during skill performance

33

Terminal feedback

Feedback received after performance

34

Frequency of feedback

more in early stages (General)
Less in later stages (precise)

35

Principles of qualitative analysis

Preparation
Observation
Evaluation
Error correction

36

Preparation

Knowledge of the skill
Identify critical variables

37

Observation

Correct view point
Number of observations
Game or practice

38

Evaluation

Measure critical variables
Priorities weakness

39

Validity

Ability of the observation method to measure what it is intended to measure

40

Reliability

Ability of the Observation method to reproduce Identical or similar results using the same:
Observation technique
Equipment
Conditions
Environment

41

Intra rater reliability

Consistency of rating given by one observer

42

Inter rater reliability

Consistency of rating between multiple observers

43

Error correction

Select appropriate intervention
Provide feedback

44

Constraints that influence movement skill development

Task constraints
Individual contrariness
Environmental constraints

45

Direct coaching approach

Skill and drill, highly structured and repetitive.
Coach is central and uses demonstrations
Explicit learning

46

Constraints based coaching

Learner orientated
Implicit learning
Modified games
Manipulation of constraints to achieve desired outcome

47

Task constraints

Equipment accessible
Number of players
Sport rules

48

Environmental constraints

Terrain
Light
Weather

49

Individual constraints

Fitness level
Height
Weight
Anxiety

50

Why qualitative over quantitative

Cheaper

51

How to Make qualitative more objective

Use measurement tools

52

Geographic location in cognitive

Influences people’s access to various PA, activities and variety of options they can try

53

Geographic location in associative

Emphasis on particular activities in different areas produces varying elite athletes

54

Geographic location in autonomous

Travel to meet Climate conditions and competitions at high enough level