Outcome 1a Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Outcome 1a Deck (42):
1

Hunger

The drive to satisfy the need for food

2

Appetite

The desire for food, even when the body is not hungry

3

How is appetite triggered

Appealing to sensory properties.
-sight
-aroma

4

Satiety

A state of fullness after eating food. (No longer want food)

5

Glycemic index

Measure of how fast and how much a food raises blood glucose level

6

High GI foods

-Rapidly digested, absorbed and metabolised.
-Cause fluctuations in blood glucose level
-white bread, white rice

7

Low GI foods

-Slowly digested,absorbed and metabolised.
-smaller fluctuations in blood glucose level
-brown rice, lentils,grain
-maintain satiety

8

Sensory appreciation of food

Flavour
Aroma
Texture
Appearance

9

Stages of digestion

Mouth
Saliva
Oesophagus
Stomach
Pancreas
Small intestine
Large intestine
Rectum

10

Enzymatic hydrolysis

Chemical breakdown of food by breaking the bonds that hold together the molecular building blocks within food

11

Mechanical digestion

Physical breakdown of food

12

Chemical digestion

Chemical breakdown of food by enzymes

13

Micro flora

Bacteria present in the intestine

14

What do micro flora do

-Assist vitamin K and B synthesis
-Aid lactose digestion
-absorb short chain fatty acids

15

Probiotics

Living microbial food supplements that enhance nutrient absorption

16

Prebiotics

Compounds in food products that are not digestible and stimulate growth of colonic bacteria

17

Villi

Projections that stick out of the inner walls of the small intestine.

18

Monosaccharide

Single unit of sugar
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose

19

Disaccharides

2 monosaccharides joined together
Sucrose (glucose + fructose)
Lactose (glucose + galactose)
Maltose (2glucose)

20

Polysaccharide

Carbohydrates made from many sugars

21

Amylase

Enzyme that breaks down polysaccharides into disaccharides

22

Enzyme that breaks down sucrose

Sucrase

23

Enzyme that breaks down lactose

Lactase

24

Enzyme that breaks down maltose

Maltase

25

Fibre

A type of carbohydrate found in plant based foods

26

Soluble fibre

Fibre that is completely broken down in digestive system (large intestine)

27

Insoluble fibre

-Is not absorbed by the body or solvable in water.
-helps maintain bowl

28

Proteins

Combination of amino acids that help develop, maintain and repair body tissue.

29

Essential amino acids

-Amino acids that can’t be produced by body and are essential to be eaten.
-8 essential amino acids

30

Non essential amino acids

Produced by body, not needed to be consumed

31

Complete proteins

-Protein that comes from dominantly animal sources with exception to bean products and quinoa
-contain all essential amino acids

32

Incomplete proteins

-Protein from plant sources (wheat,oats,rye,lentils)
-lack one or more essential amino acids

33

Fat

Combination of fatty acids and glycerol

34

.

.

35

Unsaturated fats

-mostly in plant or vegetable oils
-can be monosaturated or polysaturated

36

Trans fats

-liquid fat that is converted to solid fat
-harmful to health (stroke,heat disease)
-deep fried foods, sweets, pastries

37

Fat is broken down into

Fatty acids
Glycerol
Broken down by lipase

38

How are fatty acids and glycerol absorbed

-Absorbed into the lacteal of the villi
-travel around body in lymphatic system
-enter blood stream as insoluble fats and converted into soluble fats in liver.

39

What is maltose made of

2 glucose

40

What is lactose made of

Glucose and galactose

41

What is sucrose made of

Glucose and fructose

42

How is protein absorbed

Enter blood stream through villi
Dissolved in blood stream and stored in liver