Flashcards in Overiew Of Immunee Responses Deck (108):
Describe where extracellular microbes are able to survive.
They survive in animals by growing extracellular being simply immersed in nutrients
Describe what intracellular microbes do.
Invade, live, and replicate intracellular within animals cells where they use host cell energy sources.
All microbes can _______ , _________ , and ___________ humans.
Grow, reproduce and infect humans
What is the immune system compromised of?
Immune cells and molecules which collectively mediate an immune response
What is immunity?
A set of cooperative defensive mechanisms which provide protection from infectious disease.
Describe collateral damage.
An immune response against microbes that can cause tissue injury.
Non infectious foreign substances are known as ?
What can elicit an immune response?
In pathological conditions, self ags can elicit what?
An autoimmune response.
What are antigens?
Substances, either microbial or nonmicrobial, and induce an immune response.
Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids is included in what?
Each microbe has many what?
What is an antibody?
A protein produced by the immune system when it detects antigens.
An antigenic determinant is also known as what?
What is an epitope?
A portion of an antigen molecule to which an antibody binds
What is the smallest epitope to which an antibody can be made is what?
About 3-6 amino aids or about 5-6 sugar residues.
All large molecules have multiple __________.
Antibodies bind to _______ ________ ______ which dependent on folding of the molecule.
Conformational antigenic epitopes
What do T cell receptors recognize ?
Linear amino acid sequences
Antigens are also called what?
All ___________ are __________, but not all ________ are _______.
Immunogens are antigens, not all antigens are immunogens
What are small antigens called?
Haptens can bind to antibodies but cant do what?
Initiate an immune response
Which immunity is the first line of defense against infection?
List characteristics of innate immunity.
Gives rise to an acute inflammation
Has some specificity from antigen
Has no memory
List characteristics of adaptive immunity.
Takes longer to develop
Is highly specific
Shows memory (remembers antigen it has encountered previously)
Innate immunity reacts to products of what?
Microbes and injured cells
Does innate immunity distinguish fine differences between microbes.
Does innate immunity respond in the same way to repeated exposures?
Yes, absolutely the same.
Give examples of cellular and chemical barriers components of innate immunity.
Give example of blood proteins of innate immunity.
Acute phase proteins
Chemokines and others
Humoral innate immunity deals which component.
Give examples of cell components of innate immunity.
Phagocytes (macrophages, neutrophils)
Natural killer cells
Innate lymphoid cells
Cellular innate immunity deals with what components?
What are antimicrobial peptide?
They are small peptides that target pathogenic microorganisms ranging from viruses to parasite.
What is the complement system?
A system of plasma proteins that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear pathogens from an organism
What are acute phase proteins?
They are a large group of blood proteins whose plasma concentrations change in response to tissue injury, acute infections, burns, or inflammation.
What are cytokines?
They are cell signaling molecules that aid cell to cell communication in immune responses.
What are chemokines?
They are a subfamily of cytokines secreted by immune cells to induce chemotaxis (movement) in nearby cells.
What are phagocytes?
They are immune cells that have the ability to ingest and digest microbes
Gives examples of cellular and chemical barriers of adaptive immunity.
Lymphocytes in epithelia
Antibodies secreted at epithelial surfaces
Give examples of blood proteins of adaptive immunity.
Give examples of cell components of adaptive immunity.
B and T lymphocytes
Compare specificity, diversity, memory, and reactivity to self between innate and adaptive immunity.
GO SCREEN SHOT AND INSERT TABLE ON SLIDE 20!!!!!
Are cells and molecules of the innate immune system used by the adaptive immune system and vice versa?
The decision making stage of an immune response comes from which type of immunity?
Innate immune system
The innate immune system evaluates the invader in the context of what?
Intracellular vs. extracellular microbes and then provides the instructions to adaptive immunity.
What are the functions o f cytokines?
Regulate growth and differentiation of all immune cells.
Activate the effector functions of lymphocytes and phagocytes.
Each cytokines acts via a what?
Specific signaling receptor expressed on target cells.
What relates cell migration and movement?
What is the primary function of phagocytes.
To ingest and destroy microbes and get rid of damaged tissues (scavenger function).
Neutrophils and macrophages are included in what?
Steps in functional responses of phagocytes: (RRID)
-Recruitment of the cells to the sites of infection
-Recognition of and activation by microbes
-Ingestion of the microbes by the process of phagocytosis
-Destruction of ingested microbes
Activated phagocytes also secrete what?
Cytokines, promote or regulate immune responses.
Why are neutrophils called polymorphonuclear lymphocytes?
Because their nucleus is segmented into three to five connected lobules.
Neutrophils mediate the earliest phases of what?
Where are neutrophils produced?
In the bone marrow
Arise from precursors that also give rise to mononuclear phagocytes
Production of neutrophil is stimulated by which cytokine?
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)
How many neutrophils does an adult human produces a day?
1x10^11 per day
How long do neutrophils circulate in the blood?
For hours or a few days
After neutrophil enter tissues, how long do they function before they die?
For 1 to 2 days
What roles do mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils play?
Roles in innate and adaptive immunity responses.
Mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils protect against what?
Helminthes and reactions that cause allergic disease
What common feature do mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils share?
They have cytoplasmic granules filled with various inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators.
Mast cells are common at sites in the body that are what?
Exposed to the external environment
For example the skin
Mast cells are found in close proximity to what?
To blood vessels
Why are mast cells in lose proximity to blood vessels?
So they can regulate vascular permeability and effector-cell recruitment
Cells of them resident macrophages arise from committed precursor cells from where?
Cells in the bone marrow
after monocytes enter the blood circulation, where do they migrate to? and what do they further mature in to?
migrate into tissues, where they mature into macrophages
a heterogenous population of immune cells that fulfill tissue-specific and niche-specific function is know as what?
what four things do macrophages range from?
1) dedicated homeosatic functions, such as clearance of cellular debris and iron processing
2) central roles in tissue immune surveillance
3) response to infection
4) resolution of inflammation
Das are cells of which immunity?
DCs comprise a diverse group of professional what ?
antigen presenting cells (APCs)
Das can be broadly divided into what?
plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs)
what are macs derived from?
what is another subpopulation of DCs?
langerhan's cells resting in the epidermis of the skin
how is humoral adaptive immunity mediated?
by Abs in the blood and mucosal secretions which are produced by B cells
where does the development and maturation of T cells occurs?
in the thymus
When mature T cell is Ag-stimulated, it gives rise to what?
where does the development and maturation of B cells occur? and gives rise to what immunity?
mainly in the bone marrow
why is humoral adaptive immunity the principal defense mechanism against extracellular microbes and their toxins?
because secreted Abs can bind to these microbes and toxins and assist in their elimination
who is the father of humoral immunity?
who is the father of cell-mediated immunity?
What is Cellular Immunity controlled by?
T lymphocytes - T cells
what is the function of CMI?
function is the killing of infected host cells to eliminate reservoirs of infection
some T cells also help B cells to make what?
effective Abs thus contributing to eradication of extracellular microbes
what is the functional significance of specificity in adaptive immunity?
ensures that the immune response to a microbe (or nonmicroblal Ags) is selective to that microbe (or Ag)
what is the functional significance of diversity in adaptive immunity?
enable the immune system to respond to a large variety of Ags
what is the functional significance of memory in adaptive immunity?
increase the ability to combat repeat infections by the same microbes
what is the functional significance of clonal expansion in adaptive immunity?
increase the number of Ag-specific lymphocytes to keep pace with microbes
what is the functional significance of specialization in adaptive immunity?
generates responses that are optimal for defense against different types of microbes
what is the functional significance of contraction and homeostasis in adaptive immunity?
allows the immune system to recover from one response so that it can effectively respond to newly encountered Ags
what is the functional significance of non reactivity to self in adaptive immunity?
prevents injury to the host during responses to foreign Ags
explain the clonal selection hypothesis.
how does the immune system may respond to a large number of different Ags?
Ag-specific clones of lymphocytes develop before and independent of exposure to Ag
What is a clone?
referes to a lymphocyte of one specificity and its progeny
why does the immune system generate a very large number of clones during the maturation of lymphocytes?
to maximize the potential for recognizing diverse microbes
What phase does the expanded lymphocyte clone die?
memory cells are more effective in combating microbes than are _________.
between memory cells and naive cells, which ones respond faster and more effectively?
what is an important goal of vaccination?
generation of memory responses
compare secondary response to primary response.
secondary response to Ag is more rapid and larger than the primary response
conferred by a host response to a microbe or microbial Ags
is conferred by adoptive transfer of antibodies or T lymphocytes specific for the microbe
between active and passive immunity, which response generate immunologic memory
what do b lymphocytes recognize?
soluble Ags and develop into Ab secreting cells
what do t helper cells recognize?
Ags on the surface of Ag-presenting cells and secrete cytokines, which stimulate different mechanisms of immunity
what do cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize?
Ags on infected cells and kill these cells