Flashcards in Overview And Imaging Deck (34):
How much of the cardiac output do the kidneys take up on their own?
At what vertebral levels do the kidneys lay?
Which kidney lays most superior?
(Right pushed inferiorly by the liver)
What are the 2 layers of kidney parenchyma?
Approx how many litres of water are there in a 70kg man?
What is the percentage total body water for a 70kg man, a woman and a baby?
Man = 60%
Woman = 50%
Baby = 80%
How much of the total body water is ICF?
Approx 28 litres
How much of the total body water is ECF?
Approx 14 litres
How much of the total body water is plasma?
Approx 3 litres
Solute per kg of solvent
Number of osmoles per litre
When we physically measure something is it in osmolarity or osmolality?
How much do the kidneys filter per day?
180 litres per day.
How much urine is produced per day?
Approx 1.5 litres
Approximately how many nephrons are there per kidney?
Continuous sheets of cells covering the exposed surfaces and lining internal surfaces
What is the average blood flow to the kidneys?
What is the average GFR?
Approx how much Na+ and water is reabsorbed in the PCT?
Na+-K+-ATPase is located on which membrane in the kidneys?
What does the Na/K ATPase pump move?
3 Na+ out of the cell
2 K+ into the cell
Which part of the kidney do we have control over?
Why can x-rays be used for renal stones?
Stones are made of calcium oxalate which is very dense
Describe an intravenous urogram (IVU)
Plain radiograph with contrast injected into the blood
Good for viewing the collecting system - see how the contrast travels by taking x-rays at different times
Nowadays we tend to use CT/MRI
What are the 3 places where the ureter narrows?
Junction of renal pelvis and ureter
Crossing the pelvic brim
Piercing the bladder wall
How does ultrasound work?
Uses reflections of sound waves
Why is ultrasound a good option?
Non-ionising radiation therefore can be used on children and pregnant women without risk
Accessible and cheap
Describe computed tomography (CT)
Cross sectional images taken via x-rays
High dose of radiation
Why might we choose CT over MRI?
How can we tell if there is an area of infection?
These areas do not take up contrast as well
Describe an MRI
Enter a tunnel that uses magnetic fields to give us cross sectional images
What is nuclear medicine?
Giving a person a radioactive isotope (blood) and using ionising radiation to image it
What is nuclear medicine good for?
Giving us functional information (renal function and obstruction)
Not good for anatomy