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Flashcards in Overview And Imaging Deck (34):
1

How much of the cardiac output do the kidneys take up on their own?

Approx 22%

2

At what vertebral levels do the kidneys lay?

T11-L3

3

Which kidney lays most superior?

Left kidney
(Right pushed inferiorly by the liver)

4

What are the 2 layers of kidney parenchyma?

Cortex
Medulla

5

Approx how many litres of water are there in a 70kg man?

42 litres

6

What is the percentage total body water for a 70kg man, a woman and a baby?

Man = 60%
Woman = 50%
Baby = 80%

7

How much of the total body water is ICF?

Approx 28 litres

8

How much of the total body water is ECF?

Approx 14 litres

9

How much of the total body water is plasma?

Approx 3 litres

10

Define osmolality

Solute per kg of solvent

11

Define osmolarity

Number of osmoles per litre

12

When we physically measure something is it in osmolarity or osmolality?

Osmolality

13

How much do the kidneys filter per day?

180 litres per day.

14

How much urine is produced per day?

Approx 1.5 litres

15

Approximately how many nephrons are there per kidney?

1.5 million

16

Define epithelia

Continuous sheets of cells covering the exposed surfaces and lining internal surfaces

17

What is the average blood flow to the kidneys?

4 ml/g/min

18

What is the average GFR?

125 ml/min

19

Approx how much Na+ and water is reabsorbed in the PCT?

60-70%

20

Na+-K+-ATPase is located on which membrane in the kidneys?

Basolateral membrane

21

What does the Na/K ATPase pump move?

3 Na+ out of the cell
2 K+ into the cell

22

Which part of the kidney do we have control over?

DCT

23

Why can x-rays be used for renal stones?

Stones are made of calcium oxalate which is very dense

24

Describe an intravenous urogram (IVU)

Plain radiograph with contrast injected into the blood
Good for viewing the collecting system - see how the contrast travels by taking x-rays at different times
Nowadays we tend to use CT/MRI

25

What are the 3 places where the ureter narrows?

Junction of renal pelvis and ureter
Crossing the pelvic brim
Piercing the bladder wall

26

How does ultrasound work?

Uses reflections of sound waves

27

Why is ultrasound a good option?

Non-ionising radiation therefore can be used on children and pregnant women without risk
Accessible and cheap

28

Describe computed tomography (CT)

Cross sectional images taken via x-rays
High dose of radiation

29

Why might we choose CT over MRI?

Better resolution
Quicker
Cheaper

30

How can we tell if there is an area of infection?

These areas do not take up contrast as well

31

Describe an MRI

Enter a tunnel that uses magnetic fields to give us cross sectional images
Non-ionising radiation

32

What is nuclear medicine?

Giving a person a radioactive isotope (blood) and using ionising radiation to image it

33

What is nuclear medicine good for?

Giving us functional information (renal function and obstruction)
Not good for anatomy

34

What pain is classic for renal stones?

Loin to groin