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Flashcards in Overview of Biology Deck (30):
1

Biology

the study of life

2

Manifestations of Life

Reproduction
Organization and Order
Metabolism

Growth and Development
Evolution
Adaptation/Homeostasis
Response to Stimuli

3

Organization and Order

Emergent properties

4

Hierarchy of Life

Biosphere
Ecosystem
Community
Population
Organism
Organ System
Organ
Tissue
Cell
Molecule
Atom

5

Metabolism

use of energy

6

Adaptation/Homeostasis

maintaining a same state

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Reproduction

producing their own kind

Sexual VS Asexual

8

Growth and Development

directed by DNA

9

Response to Stimuli

react to environment

10

Evolution

More variation = higher chance of survivial

11

Viruses, Viroids, and Prions

Obligate Parasite (need a host)

12

Deductive Reasoning

General --> Specific

13

Inductive Reasoning

Specific --> General

14

Abductive Reasoning

incomplete observation --> likeliest possible explaination

15

Scientific Process

Observation
Hypothesis
Prediction
Experiment
Conclusion

16

Theory

set of hypothesis thoroughly tested over time

may still be wrong

17

Limitations of Science

must be observed and measured

18

Theories on the origin of life

1. Spontaneous Generation
2. Biogenesis
3. Special Creation
4. Biogeochemical
5. Interplanetary or Cosmozoic

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Spontaneous Generation Theory

life developed from nonliving matter

20

Francesco Redi

debunked Spontaneous Generation by using maggots and decaying meat

1668

21

John Needham

countered Francesco Redi by using microbes growing in nutrient fluids

1745

22

Lazzaro Spallanzani

disproved John Needham by heating nutrient fluids

1765

23

Louis Pasteur

final argument against Spontaneous Generation

used broth in swan-neck flask (U turn traps dust and microorganisms)

24

Biogenesis Theory

life arises from pre-existing life

25

Rudolf Virchow

proposed Biogenesis in 1850s

26

Special Creation Theory

supernatural force or being created life

cannot be proven or disproven by science

27

Biogeochemical Theory

life evolved from inorganic matter

28

A.I. Oparin and J.B.S. Haldane

postulated conditions on early Earth favored synthesis of organic compounds

1920s

29

Stanley Miller and Harold Urey

tested Oparin-Haldane hypothesis by simulating an "early earth"

1953

30

Interplanetary or Cosmozoic Theory

life came from a distant planet