Overview of Neuroanatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Overview of Neuroanatomy Deck (36):
1

What is included in the CNS (Central Nervous System)?

The brain and spinal cord

2

What does the peripheral nervous system include?

The nerves leaving and entering the SPINAL CORD

3

What does the spinal cord do? What section is it comprised of (superior to inferior order)?

The spinal cord carries to (afferent) and from (efferent) the brain.

 

Four Sections: CTLS 

Cervical

Thoracic

Lumbar

Sacral

4

What parts is the Hindbrain comprised of?

Brainstem and the Cerebellum 

5

What parts is the Dienchephalon comprised of?

Thalumus and the Hypothalumus

6

What part of the brain is this?

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Cerebellum

7

What parts is the brainstem comprised of?

The pons, medulla and midbrain

8

What part of the brainstem is this?

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Pons

9

What part of the brainstem is this?

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Medulla

10

What part of the brainstem is this?

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Midbrain

11

What is the Brainstem? What parts are included? What are the functions?

The brainstem is a part of the Hindbrain. 
 

It includes the Pons, Medulla, and the Midbrain. 

 

Functions: reticular activation & formation, regulates level of consciousness

12

What is the Medulla and where is it located? 

It is a part of the brain stem (in the Hindbrain) located under the pons.

 It is RESPONSIBLE for vital life functions (heart rate, breathing, etc.)

13

What is the Pons? Where is it located?

It is apart of the brainstem (in the Hindbrain) located above the medulla and under the midbrain.

It is the BRIDGE between the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum. 

 

 

14

What is the Midbrain? Where is it located?

It is a part of the brainstem in the Hindbrain located above the pons. 

It contains important nuclei for movement, hearing, and vision

15

What is the Cerebellum? Where is it located?

The Cerebellum is located posterior to the brainsteam behind the pons and medulla. 

 

It is important for motor modulation (proper gait) and the development of motor sequences. 

16

What is the Thalamus? Where is it located?

The right and left Thalamus is located in the diencephalon superior to the hypothalamus and the pineal gland.

 

The thalamus  is a group of numerous nuclei (eg. visual, auditory, & somatosensory)

 

it is a major RELAY/SWITCHBOARD STATION for sensory info before projected to the cortex/cerebral hemispheres (thats why is s big) lol

 

 

17

What brain structure is this?

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Thalamus

18

What is the hypothalamus? Where is it located?

The hypothalamus is located in the diencephalon inferior to the thalamus and superior to the pineal gland. 

 

It is the structure responsible for maintaining homeostasis (temperature), flight/flight drives, food, and reproductive drives. 

19

What structure is this?

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Hypothalamus

20

What are the four lobes of the cortex?

Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital

21

Which area of the cortex is this?

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Frontal Lobe

22

Which area of the cortex is this?

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Parietal lobe

23

Which area of the cortex is this?

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temporal lobe

24

Which area of the cortex is this?

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occipital lobe

25

What are the major sulci/ fissures?

Longitudinal fissure: separates the hemispheres

Sylvian fissure: separates the temp. lobe from the frotal and parietal lobes

central sulcus: separates the frontal  from the parietal lobe

parieto-occipital sulcus: separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe

26

What brain structure is this?

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basal ganglia

27

What is the function of the basal ganglia? What are the parts ?

numerous functions: Contributes to motor control and executive functions

 

Parts:Claudate nucleus, putamen, & globus pallidus

28

What is Gray Matter composed of?

Gray matter is composed of cell bodies (soma), including dendrites and synapses. It includes the cerebral cortex and some subcortical structures (that are made of clusters of neurons--> nuclei, i.e. basal ganglia and thalamus). 

 

 

29

A lesion of gray matter leads to what?

Focal deficits (nerve spinal cord of brain)

30

What is white matter made of?

White matter is made of myelinated axons (that transmit info over long distances from the cortex). 

 

Collections of axons= pathways/tracts (association, projection, commisural)

31

What are the three types of white matter pathways/tracts and what do they connect?

Association: connect areas of brain on same side ( same hemi)

Projection: connect cortical and subcortical areas of brain on same side. 

Commisural: band of fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of brain (corpus callosum)

32

Disruptions/ Lesions of white matter lead to:

Disconnection Syndromes

33

What are ventricles? What are the functions? The process?

Ventricles are fluid filled cavities in the brain. 

 

Serves as a protective cushion the brain and spinal cord during impact

Also drains waste fluid from the brain

 

Cerebral spinal fluid is created in the lateral ventricle, flows down te ventricular system then goes around the brain and spinal cord

34

What are the meninges? What is the function?

Meninges are membranes surround and protect the brain (cortex) AND spinal cord. There are three layers:

 

Dura Mater (outermost)

Arachanoid Mater (middle)

Pia Mater (innermost)

35

What part of the brain is this?

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the meninges

36

What % of blood does the brain recieve from the heart? How is the blood delivered? How is blood taken away? 

20%

via arteries

via veins