Overweight, Underweight, and Weight Control Flashcards Preview

Human Nutrition > Overweight, Underweight, and Weight Control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Overweight, Underweight, and Weight Control Deck (44):
1

inch to cm

1 inch = 2.54 cm

2

kg to lb.

1 kg. = 2.2 lbs

3

cm to m

100cm = 1m

4

calculate BMI

wt(kg) / ht(m^2)

(lbs x 705) / ht(in^2)

5

what is BMI?

index of a person's weight in relation to height

healthy is between 18.5-25

6

lowest mortality BMI

20-25

7

central obesity

excess fat on the abdomen and trunk

linked to diabetes, stroke, hypertension, CAD

8

intra-abdominal fat

fat stored in the abdominal cavity in association with abdominal organs

9

subcutaneous fat

fat stored directly under the skin

10

apple/pear shape

apple: abdominal fat most common in men

pear: lower body fat most common in women

11

fatfold measure

clinical estimate of total body fatness w/ caliper

measure triceps fold, below shoulder blade

12

waist circumference

measure used to assess abdominal fat

13

overweight

body weight above some standard of acceptable weight

usually BMI

14

obesity

chronic disease characterized by excessively high body fat in relation to lean body mass

15

should the same person take measurements?

yes

16

BMI categories

18.5 or less: underweight

18.5-25 normal

25-30 overweight

30-35 obese class I

35-40 obese class II

40 and above extremely obese class III

17

disease risk based on weight circumference and BMI (>40 inches in men > 35 inches in women)

18.5 or less: low

18.5-25: low

25-30: increased / high

30-35: high / very high

35-40: very high

40 and above: extremely high

18

some evidence shows that being moderately overweight increases risk of heart disease T/F?

true

19

what is a gene's influence of obesity?

influences body's tendency to consume or store too much energy or to burn too little

LPL: lipoprotein lipase

leptin differences

20

LPL

lipoprotein lipase

enzyme mounted on the surface of fat cells

hydrolyzes triglycerides in blood into fatty acids and glycerol for absorption into cells

21

leptin

protein produced by fat cells under direction of the obesity gene that increases satiety and energy expenditure

22

effect of fat cell development on obesity

excess development

fat cell # and size

23

set-point theory

theory proposing that the body maintains a certain weight by means of its own internal controls

24

environmental stimuli and obesity

these stimuli and learned behaviors like conditioned appetite and low physical activity increase obesity

25

learned behavior types

hunger

appetite

26

hunger

physiological need to eat; experienced as a drive to obtain food

its an unpleasant sensation that demands relief

27

appetite

psychological desire to eat; learned motivation that is experienced as a pleasant sensation

accompanies sight, smell, or thought of appealing foods

28

inactivity effect on obesity

input vs. output

technology decreases activity

29

reasonable weight loss goals

reduce weight by 10% over half a year

maintain lower body weight over long term

at a minimum, prevent further weight gain

30

fat loss expectations

1/2 - 2 lbs/week

to lose a lb. a week cut 500 calories/day

31

% weight loss improvements

5% sees improvement

10% significant improvement

32

healthy eating plan

nutritional adequacy

small frequent meals and small portions

carbs are whole grains, legumes, fruits & veggies with fiber, vitamins & minerals

limit sugar/alcohol intake

adequate water (30ml/kg/day or 1ml per kcal/day)

33

how does exercise help?

direct increase in energy output (muscles/cardio)

indirect energy output BMR

appetite control

psychological benefits

34

is spot reducing fat possible?

no

35

behavior modification

changing behavior with manipulation of antecedents, the behavior itself, and consequnces

36

underweight weight gain plan

exercise to build muscle

energy dense food

large portions

3 meals a day

juice and milk

37

what can underweight lead to?

bone loss

pregnancy/childbirth problems

depressed immunity

poor medical recovery due to decreased reserves

38

anorexia nervosa

severe state of underweight and intentional starvation

39

how to combat eating disorders

maintain adequacy - food guide pyramid

eat frequently to avoid hunger

reasonable weight goals & timeframe

40

athletes should...

replace wt loss goals w/ skill and performance goals

only try to lose weight in off season

get proper nutrition

41

childhood obesity

behaviors that increase obesity start in childhood

obesity and type 2 diabetes strongly linked

childhood obesity changes arteries (causes CVD later in life)

42

atherosclerosis, HTN, high cholesterol may develop before age __ in obese children

10

43

should children be on diets?

no, limits growth

44

is fat intake to blame for increased childhood obesity?

no, but those who prefer high fat foods are more likely to be overweight