Why is Phylloxera not really a problem in Washington State?
Freezing winters, inhospitable sandy soils, and great distances between one vineyard to the next.
Why is rainfall so scarce in eastern Washington?
Pacific air hits the Cascade Range and is pushed upward, cooled, and condensed into clouds, which quickly unleash their moisture as precipitation, createing a rain shadow effect for the Columbia River Basin in eastern Washington.
(The western slopes of the Cascades receive over 80 inches of rainfall annually, while 50 miles to the east the climate is suddenly desert-like.)
What contributes to Washington state’s continental growing climate, as opposed to maritime?
The Cascades block the moderating maritime air from moving further inland. Larger diurnal swings.
What is “dual-trunk training” and what state is it most commonly employed?
Dual-trunk training is used throughout Washington state. Growers train two separate trunks on the same vine in parallel (~an inch or two apart) from the ground up. Statistically, growers will only get winter damage to one of the vines.
Who is Dr. Walter Clore and why is he important?
Dr. Walter Clore is formally recognized by the Washington State Legislature as the “Father of Washington Wine.” He spearheaded efforts in Washington to prove that vinifera grapevines could withstand the harsh Washington winters.
What are the two most planted red grapes in WA state?
Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot
What Washington state AVAs also overlap with Oregon?
Columbia Valley, Walla Walla, Columbia Gorge
What Washington AVAs are NOT nested within Columbia Valley AVA?
Puget Sound and Columbia Gorge AVAs
What was Washington state’s first AVA? Second?
Yakima Valley (1983) and Walla Walla Valley (1984)
What are the AVAs within Yakima Valley AVA?
Red Mountain AVA, Snipes Mountain AVA, Rattlesnake Hills AVA
Where is Red Willow Vineyard?
Yakima Valley, Washington. Red Willow Vineyard is where the state’s first Syrah was planted in the 1980s.
This AVA is the smallest and also the most densely planted in Washington. What AVA is it a subregion of?
Red Mountain AVA, part of Yakima Valley AVA
What are the westernmost and easternmost AVAs in Washington?
Westernmost AVA is Puget Sound, easternmost is Walla Walla (shared with Oregon)
Where are the Blue Mountains and what wine region do they influence?
The Blue Mountains are in eastern Washington, to the east of Walla Walla AVA.
What Washington AVA’s boundaries are defined by elevation? Can you name other AVAs also defined by elevation?
Snipes Mountain AVA. Mendocino Ridge and Howell Mountain AVA are also defined by elevation.
Where is Two Blondes Vineyard? Who is the producer?
Two Blondes Vineyard is in the Rattlesnake Hills AVA, owned by Andrew Will. (Wines are labeled Yakima Valley, because of local opposition to the creation of the Rattlesnake Hills AVA)
What is the eastern most AVA in Washington?
Columbia Valley AVA, but Walla Walla is the eastern most AVA nested within it.
Walla Walla lies at the confluence of what three rivers?
Columbia, Walla Walla, and Snake Rivers
Who was the first to plant in Walla Walla Valley, and when?
Gary Figgins (Leonetti Cellar) in 1974
Name 4 producers in Walla Walla Valley on the Washington side.
Leonetti Cellar, Woodward Canyon, Pepper Bridge, Gramercy Cellars, Rotie Cellars, VaPiano, aMaurice
What is The Rocks of Milton-Freewater?
Recent AVA (2015) in Oregon, known for cobbly loam, old riverbed soils similar to the galets of Châteauneuf-du-Pape
Where is Champoux Vineyard and why is it significant?
Horse Heaven Hills AVA, first planted by in 1972 in consultation with Walter Clore, it is HHH’s standard-bearer for quality fruit
What AVA in Washington primarily grows white grapes, and why?
Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley AVA, because it is considerably cooler than other AVAs. Temperatures are moderated by a series of 35 glacial lakes that knife through the region. (Riesling is main focus)
Where is Lake Chelan?
Lake Chelan is a glacial lake in northern Washington, moderates temperatures in Lake Chelan AVA
Apart from Puget Sound, what is Washington’s coolest AVA and why?
Columbia Gorge AVA, wind is the region’s defining climatic feature: WA’s hot interior pulls cool coastal winds inland through the gap in the Cascades.
If a wine is LIVE-certified and labeled with a LIVE logo, what does that mean? What is LIVE?
This means the winery is LIVE-certified and at least 97% of the grapes come from a LIVE-certified vineyard. LIVE stands for Low Impact Viticulture & Enology, it is a non-profit organization committed to sustainability by promoting an overall reduction in raw materials usage—from water to chemical fertilizers and pesticides—required in the vineyard and winery.
What are the Missoula Floods?
cataclysmic floods that swept periodically across eastern Washington and down the Columbia River Gorge at the end of the last ice age. Vineyards in eastern Washington are thus generally planted on sandy or silty loam soils derived from the flood-borne sediments.
What is the warmest AVA in Oregon, and why?
Rogue Valley; pushing Region II, comparable to Bordeaux. The Klamath Mountain Range limits maritime influence throughout much of the AVA
What are the nested AVAs within Rogue Valley?
What are the nested AVAs within Umpqua Valley?
Elkton Oregon, Red Hill Douglas County
What is the Van Duzer Corridor?
a gap in the Coastal Mountains through which cool, constant Pacific winds blow, particularly in the McMinnville AVA
What AVA sits in the mouth of the Van Duzer corridor? What does this mean for viticulture?
McMinnville AVA. The intense winds coming through the corridor off the Pacific denude vines, reduce yields, reduce berry size and thicken skins, creating denser, more tannic wines. Most vineyards are planted on east facing slopes, to avoid as much direct impact from the wind as possible.
Where is Shea Vineyard?
Is chaptalization legal in Oregon?
Compare and contrast the climates of the Willamette Valley and Burgundy.
Both run roughly along the 45th parallel, are Region 1 and have similar average growing season temperatures. However, the Cote d’Or’s season is compressed and shorter, with higher mid-season temperatures and lower temps in the spring and fall (for example, on average budbreak is a week earlier and veraison and harvest 5 days later in the Willamette than Burgundy, on average). Willamette is wetter (avg. 40 inches of rain annually), but most falls during the winter months, and the growing season is drier than Burgundy’s, resulting in less risk of rot and hail.
When and where was the first Pinot Noir planted in the Willamette Valley, and by whom?
in 1965 by David Lett (Eyrie Vineyards); experimental vineyard near Corvallis in 1965, replanted in Dundee Hills in 1966. And by Charles Coury in Chehalem Mountains (part of David Hill Winery today)
Where and when was the first Pinot Noir planted in Oregon, and by whom?
1961, in Umpqua Valley by Richard Sommer, at his winery Hillcrest.
Oregon has higher varietal percentage requirements than most other states. What is the requirement?
Varietal wines (some exceptions) must contain 90% of stated varietal (compared to 75%). AVA wines must contain a minimum of 95% (compared to 85%) of grapes from stated appellation.
What and where is Idaho’s newest AVA?
Lewis-Clark Valley, shared between Idaho and Washington north of Walla Walla, established in 2016
Where is Lewis-Clark Valley?
Lewis-Clark Valley is an AVA shared between Idaho and Washington
What AVA does Oregon share with Idaho?
Snake River Valley AVA
What is the newest AVA in Oregon?
The Rocks District of Milton-Freewater, 2015.
Where is Eagle Foothills AVA? What makes this different from it’s surrounding AVAs?
Idaho, Eagle Foothills is the only AVA solely within Idaho (Snake River is shared with Oregon, Lewis Clark Valley is shared with Washington)
What Willamette Valley sub-AVA is most characterized by Jory series soils?
Dundee Hills (original AVA proposal called for “Red Hills of Dundee”), also Red Hill Douglas County AVA (NOT a sub-AVA)
What is the smallest AVA in Oregon?
Ribbon Ridge AVA, within Chehalem Mountains AVA
What are the sub-AVAs of the Willamette Valley?
Chehalem Mountains Ribbon Ridge Yamhill-Carlton District Dundee Hills McMinnville Eola-Amity Hills
What are the sub-AVAs of Umpqua Valley?
Elkton Oregon, Red Hill Douglas County, Southern Oregon