Paediatric Foot, Ankle and Spinal Problems Flashcards Preview

The Musculoskeletal System > Paediatric Foot, Ankle and Spinal Problems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Paediatric Foot, Ankle and Spinal Problems Deck (27):
1

By what other name is clubfoot known?

Talipes equinovarus

2

What is talipes equinovarus?

A congenital deformity of the foot caused due to inutero abnormal alignment of the jonts between the talus, calcaneus and navicular leading to soft tissue contractures

3

What are the 3 main deformities in talipes equinovarus?

  1. Ankle equinus (plantarflexion)
  2. Supination of the forefoot
  3. Varus alignment of the forefoot

4

Which sex is more commonly affected by talipes equinovarus?

Boys

5

What are the main risk factors for talipes equinovarus?

  1. Male gender
  2. Family history
  3. Breech births
  4. Oligohydramnios (low amniotic fluid content)
  5. Another coexistant skeletal dysplasia

6

Which technique can be used to treat babies as soon as possible after birth?

Ponseti technique

7

What does the Ponseti technique involve?

  1. Deformities are corrected progressively by being held in evolving plaster casts with 5 or 6 weekly cast changes.
  2. 80% of children require a tenotomy of the Achilles tendon
  3. The child is placed in a brace when full correction is achieved
  4. This brace is worn 23 hours a day for 3 months and then solely during sleep until the age of 3-4 to prevent recurrence

8

How are delayed presentations of talipes equinovarus treated?

Extensive surgery involving bony and soft tissue procedures

9

What is tarsal coalition?

When there is an abnormal bridge between the calcaneus and navicular or talus and calcaneus

This bridge can be bony, fibrous or cartilaginous

10

What may tarsal coalition lead to in older children?

Painful fixed flat foot deformity

11

How can symtpoms be improved for tarsal coalition?

Splintage/orthotics

(resistant pain may require surgery to remove the abnormal connection)

12

When does hallux valgus usually present in terms of paediatrics?

Late adolescence

13

Hallux valgus usually has a _______ family history

Strong

14

What is the problem with surgical correction of hallux valgus in the adolescent age group?

This carries a risk of recurrence

 

15

Back pain in children is a red flag, what 3 main things may it signify?

  1. Infections (discitis)
  2. Tumours (such as osteoid osteoma)
  3. Spondylolisthesis

16

What is scoliosis?

Lateral curvature of the spine

17

Which sex is more commonly affected by scoliosis?

Females

18

What may cause scoliosis?

  1. Idiopathic
  2. Neuromuscular disease
  3. Tumours such as osteoid osteoma
  4. Skeletal dysplasia
  5. Infection

19

Any painful scoliosis warrants what?

Urgent MRI

(to check for tumour or infection)

20

What can severe scoliosis cause and why is surgery indicated in this instance?

Restrictive lung defect

Prevent breathing difficulties

21

What is spondylolisthesis?

Slippage of one vertebrae over another

22

Where does spondylolisthesis normally occur?

L4/L5 or L5/S1

23

What may cause spondylolisthesis?

  1. Developmental defect
  2. Recurrent stress fracture of the posterior elements of the vertebrae which fail to heal

24

Spondylolisthesis usually presents in whicha ge group?

Adolescents

25

Why is it suggested that spondylolisthesis develops in adolescence?

  1. Increased body weight
  2. Increased sporting activity

26

How do patients with spondylolisthesis present?

  1. Low back pain
  2. Radiculopathy (severe slippage)
  3. Flat back (due to muscle spasm)
  4. Waddling gait

27

How is spondylolisthesis treated?

Minor - rest and physio

Severe - stabilisation and possible reduction

Decks in The Musculoskeletal System Class (58):