Flashcards in Page 93 onward Deck (109):
which process is common to anaerobes and aerobic organisms?
Identical twins are made possible by ?
Indeterminate cleavage of a zygote. Each cell that's made can dev into viable embryo.
Golgi apparatus receives vesicles from smooth ER, modifies them through
Glycosylation, repackages them into vesicles and then exocytosis.
Outer and inner phospholipid bilayer belong where?
Phase contrast microscopy studies live or dead cells?
Live. Unlike compound light or electron microscopy: have to kill cell before can study.
Nucleic acids contain what parts?
Sugar, base, and phosphate group.
Examples of cofactors to enzymes?
Zn2+ or Fe2+
Lactase, lipase, proteases participate in what?
Enzyme action and reaction rate are affected by ?
Temp, pH, concen of enzyme and substrate
Mucoproteins are bound to?
Porphyrins and carotenoids are examples of?
A lipid consists of?
three fatty acids bound to a single glycerol.
Max activity of many human enzymes occur around pH 7.2. Exception includes?
Pepsin, best in stomach at pH 2. Pancreatic enzymes work best at pH 8.5.
Transport within the cytoplasm occurs by?
Cyclosis: streaming movement of the cytoplasm within the cell.
What ar e larger than vesicles and more likely found in plant than animal cells?
Microtubules involved in spindle org during cell div, not bound by membrane?
Centrioles, like in the centrosome region. Plant cells do not contain centrioles.
An injured tissue commits suicide by rupturing lysome membrane, releasing hydrolytic enzymes. Process is called?
Do red blood cells have organelles?
No. They're involved in transport.
Process causing cell to shrivel due to extracellular medium being hypertonic?
Another type of passive transport, down gradient through special channels or carrier proteins
Types of intracellular circulation?
Brownian movement, cyclosis/streatming, ER.
T or F. Not all cells have the same relative distribution of organelles.
All nucleated cells in our body have the exact same chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes, except for which cells?
Sex cells, which have half number of chromosomes as somatic cells.
Sympathetic innervation of kidney affects which arteriole?
Afferent arteriole, causing constriction, reducing urine output.
Steroid hormones bind to which receptor?
Nuclear receptors. Unlike insulin which binds to cell-surface receptor.
Which metabolic pathway occurs in all living cells?
Blood enters glomerulus via which arteriole?
Afferent. It leaves via efferent arteriole. (Notice, afferent/efferent is with respect to the organ. Vein is towards heart, artery is away from heart. With the fetus, the umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood from the placenta towards the fetus. Think, vein is towards the heart.
Type of bile pigment. If liver prob prevents normal removal of bile pigments via the digestive tract, bilirubin gets into circ, causing skin discoloration, as in jaundice.
What is bile?
an alkaline compound which aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids
peptide hormone secreted by the pancreas, raises blood glucose levels. Its effect is opposite that of insulin, which lowers blood glucose levels.
Produced in pancreas, catalyses the hydrolysis of peptide bonds so that proteins can be broken down into smaller peptides. Happens in the duodenum.
How many turns of Calvin cycle to produce glucose in photosynthesis?
What part of chloroplast contains Calvin cycle enzymes?
Products of light reaction of photosynthesis include?
ATP, O2, NADPH
Two pigments used in photosynthesis?
Chlorophyll and carotenoids.
papillary muscles are muscles located in the ventricles of the heart. They attach to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves (a.k.a. the mitral and tricuspid valves) via the chordae tendinae and contract to prevent inversion or prolapse of these valves
Projections on tongue surface.
Adjusts lens shape in eye
Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers are?
Echinoderms, no segmentation. Has radial symmetry.
Erythrocytes, platelets, and a potential line of leukocytes arise from?
a pluripotent stem cell
Hormone released primarily from kidneys that will stimulate RBC formation in bone marrow during adulthood. Also produced in perisinusoidal cells in the liver. While liver production predominates in the fetal and perinatal period. erythropoietin plays an important role in the brain's response to neuronal injury. EPO is also involved in the wound healing process.eriod
Rate erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets in abundance?
Erythrocytes > Leukocytes > Platelets.
Hybridomae technology is a technology of forming hybrid cell lines (called hybridomas) by fusing a specific antibody-producing B cell with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell that is selected for its ability to grow in tissue culture and for an absence of antibody chain synthesis
Norepinephrine can act as hormone and neurotransmitter. T or F?
modified fatty acids which help INDUCE fever, pain, and inflammation. Aspirin may inhibit prostaglandin activity.
Pancreas: list exocrine and endocrine functions
Exocrine: produce lipases, amylases, and proteases into small intestine via the pancreatic duct.
Endocrine: produce insulin and glucagon.
Norepi and epinephrine act together to do?
Increase glycogen breakdown, allow glucose into bloodstream.
extra toes or fingers
Main period in which organs dev during pregnancy?
After how many wks, embryo called fetus?
After how many wks have yes, heart, liver, pancreas, limb buds begun dev?
During which trimester is embryo most sensitive to drugs and radiation?
Motor proteins that help unwind DNA duplex, or nucleic acid strands, using ATP.
Repair discontinuities in DNA
involved in redox reactions
cut DNA at particular sequence of nucleotides, to help defend against invader such as virus.
Cellular appendages involved in transfer of genetic material between bacteria cells (conjugation)
Pilli (note, this is different from villi in the intestine)
Gram positive bacteria can form what, which is resistant to environ extremes?
Bacterial cell wall made of ? v.s. plant and fungi?
Bacterial cell wall: peptidoglycan.
Plant cell wall: cellulose.
Natural killer cells are cytotoxic but not what?
What immune cell has average life span of a few days, then self-destruct after foreign invaders are destroyed?
Neutrophils. They make up 60% of WBC's.
What structures share no common ancestor but perform similar functions?
Analogous. These structures demonstrate superficial resemblance but cannot be used as basis for classification.
What structures have the same evolutionary origin but may have different functions?
What are a type of white blood cell and are part of the innate immune system of vertebrates including all mammals (including humans), birds, reptiles, and fish. Monocytes play multiple roles in immune function. Such roles include: (1) replenish resident macrophages and dendritic cells under normal states, and (2) in response to inflammation signals, monocytes can move quickly (approx. 8-12 hours) to sites of infection in the tissues and divide/differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells to elicit an immune response. Half of them are stored in the spleen
What appear in many specific kinds of inflammatory reactions, particularly those that cause allergic symptoms. They contain anticoagulant heparin, which prevents blood from clotting too quickly. They also contain the vasodilator histamine, which promotes blood flow to tissues. They can be found in unusually high numbers at sites of ectoparasite infection, e.g., ticks. Like eosinophils, basophils play a role in both parasitic infections and allergies
Substances secreted by cells invaded by viruses that stimulate neighboring cells to produce proteins that help the mdefend against the viruses
Group of about 20 proteins that help attract phagocytes to foreign cells and promote cell lysis. Also stimulate basophils to release histamine.
Difference between immune response and inflammatory response?
Inflammatory is non-specific, it's part of the second line of defense. Immune response is specific, it's the third line of defense.
Name 3 lymphatic tissues
Lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen.
all blood cells originate fr?
Collection of glycoproteins on membranes of all body cells
MHC: proteins originating from 20 genes with 50 alleles each. Extremely unlikely, except for twins, for any two people to have cells with the same set of MHC.
How many classes of antibodies are there?
5 immunoglobulin classes: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM. Y shaped protein: constant and variable regions. Variable regions: sequences of aa that differ among antibodies.
How many percent of WBC do lymphocytes make up?
Tissue fluid that contains water, protein, salts, sugar, urea
List functions of lymphatic sys:
1) absorbs fats and fat soluble vitamins from digestive system
2) returns excess intersitital fluid to the blood
3) Lymph nodes filter lymph to remove foreign invaders. Lymphatic sys provides defense against micro-organisms.
What kind of valves do lymphatic vessels have?
One way valve
Where does lymph enter the circ system and become plasma in blood?
Base of neck, entering the subclavian vein.
What are "swollen glands"?
Lymph nodes filled with white blood cells. Body has 650 lymph nodes to filter lymph.
What helps sculpt hands and feet and eyes during embryonic dev?
Aplasia (from Greek a—not; plasis—molding) is defined in general as "defective development or congenital absence of an organ or tissue." In the field of hematology, the term refers to "incomplete, retarded, or defective development, or cessation of the usual regenerative process."
means increase in number of cells/proliferation of cells. It may result in the gross enlargement of an organ and the term is sometimes mixed with benign neoplasia / benign tumor.
What are removed from the primary transcript during post-transcriptional processing?
exon is a nucleic acid sequence that is represented in the mature form of an RNA molecule either after portions of a precursor RNA (introns) have been removed by cis-splicing or when two or more precursor RNA molecules have been ligated by trans-splicing. The mature RNA molecule can be a messenger RNA or a functional form of a non-coding RNA such as rRNA or tRNA. Depending on the context, exon can refer to the sequence in the DNA or its RNA transcrip
autosomal recessive disorder, lack of enzyme Tyrosinase which is involved in melanin production.
Breakdown of nutrients to provide energy. Opposite to anabolism: synthesis of biomolecules from simpler compounds
Functions as second messager. Made from ATP when the enzyme Adenylyl cyclase becomes active when epinephrine binds to the receptor protein on cell surface. cAMP is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction, such as transferring into cells the effects of hormones like. glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot pass through the cell membrane. It is involved in the activation of protein kinases and regulates the effects of adrenaline and glucagon. cAMP also binds to and regulates the function of ion channels
glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot pass through the cell membrane. T or F?
Which type of fish live in hypo-osmotic environment, have to compensate by rarely drinking, by urinating a lot, and by actively absorbing salts through cells in their gills?
(Marine fish have the opposite problem)
Where does sarcoma occur?
Where does carcinoma occur?
Where are satellite DNA found?
concentrated at centromeres and at ends of chromosmes. Satellite DNA consists of very large arrays of tandemly repeating, non-coding DNA. Satellite DNA is the main component of functional centromeres, and form the main structural constituent of heterochromatin.
The name "satellite DNA" refers to how repetitions of a short DNA sequence tend to produce a different frequency of the nucleotides adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine, and thus have a different density from bulk DNA - such that they form a second or 'satellite' band when genomic DNA is separated on a density gradient.
Area close to equator of egg, helps establish body axis, opposite where sperm enters:
When some ectodermal cells elongate, what is formed?
Neural plate --> neural tube ---> brain and spinal cord.
In animals and many frogs, yolk is concentrated where?
in the vegetal pole ( least concentrated in the animal pole. )
Quiescence - Interphase (G1, S, G2) - Mitosis
G1: prepare for DNA replication
S: DNA replication
G2: biosynthesis, production of microtubules.
Segmented blocks of tissue that form on either side of notochord. Somites will become vertebraes and muscles of axial skeleton.
Pine trees, spruces, fir trees are examples of
Gymnosperms or Conifers.
Fruits, flowering plants, maple, oaks, grass are
Angiosperms (monocots and dicots)
Dominant life stage of mosses is?
Which life stage is dominant in vascular plants (in contrast to bryophytes like mosses?)
A gene locus?
A specific location along the length of chromosome.
What kind of DNA does bacteria have?
Single circular Chromosome. Some species have plasmids.
What enzyme helps convert pyruvate into lactate in the redox reaction that produces NAD+ ?
Where do T cells mature? B cells mature?
T cells are made in bone marrow, matures in thymus.
B cells made in bone marrow, matures in bone.
diff between humoral v.s. cell-mediated immunity?
Cell-mediated immunity works against pathogens that have entered body cells. Humoral acts against pathogens: free viruses or bacteria.
What are immunomodulating agents, such as interleukins and interferons called?
Process where WBC slip through endothelium of blood vessels?