Pain Flashcards Preview

Jonathan's Neuroscience > Pain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pain Deck (21):
1

What is nociception?

the sensation of pain before the cortical stage
It's purely a sensory process

2

Why do we feel pain?

it's a protective mechanism that avoids further damage.

There are spinal reflexes in place to withdraw from source of pain.

3

C fibres are the ______ fibres. It takes about _____ second to transmit signal to _______ . A-delta fibres are ______, and it only ______ second to transmit signal to ______

unmyelinated
1/3
spinal cord
myelinated
1/300
brain

4

Pain fibres have ______ threshold and usually have ______ signal even after stimulus

high
sustained

5

dorsal horn has many laminae, which laminae do C fibres and A-delta fibres occupy

section i or ii for C fibres
A-delta fibres to i and V

6

T/F A delta fibres are found on glabrous skin

False, only C fibres are on glabrous skin

7

What is inflammatory pain

pain associated with release of inflammatory mediators which changes receptor sensitivity

8

what does capsaicin bind to? What else does the receptor respond to?

TRPV1, which also responds to heat, protein

9

What happens when TRPV1 is activated?

allow Na and Ca in to depolarise the cell

10

What determines the kind of nociceptor

the mixture of channels on the nocicpetor

11

What is hyperalgesia? What is an example?

an increased response to a normally painful stimulus
sunburn

12

what is allodynia?

painful response to a normally innocuous stimulus

13

What are the two types of neuropathic pain?

neuropathic pain - damage to nerve
dysfunctional pain - no neural lesion/inflammation, spontaneous pain

14

What are some common causes of maladaptive pain?

stroke, MS

15

Can you tell if someone is in pain with imaging?

No, many areas such as PFC, S1 are activated during pain sensation, but you can't tell which cell is driving pain response

16

What are the two pathways of pain processing

sensory pathway and emotional part of pain in the cingulate

17

how do most analgesic drugs work

there is a descending pathway that inhibits spinal nociceptive transmission through PAG. Most drugs work on this pathway to interfere with nociception

18

What is hypoalgesia associated with?

fear and anxiety, so they can block pain

19

what is the basis of placebo

the expectation of reducing pain will actually reduce pain

20

What is an evidence showing that placebo works on the descending PAG pathway?

placebo analgesia is reduced or prevented by opioid antagonist, so there are substance released by higher cortex when taking placebo

21

What is nocebo?

a harmless substance that creates harmful effect