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Flashcards in Pain & Nociception 1 Deck (70)
1

what are some plural pains

dentine sensitivity
caries
trauma
cracked cusp

2

what is dentine sensitivity

expo dentine irritates the pulp as they are inseparable, bacteria prod toxins which = inflam

3

what is cracked cusp

restoration sill alive (amalgam) cusp fracture fell pain from hot/cold and biting down due to inflam at apex

4

what is the pain associated with the periodontium

typically abscess (apical pulp died off)

5

what is dry socket pain

socket doesn't heal properly, clot comes out open socket and bone gets infected (osteitis)

6

what are CMD's

cranio mandiular disorders (TMJ problems)

7

what are the CMD's that can be present

TMJ
Masticatory muscles

8

what can be the pain assc with the salivary glands

blocked duct = drier mouth but more imp when eat alive prod and is blocked = infected and swollen duct

9

what is the pain assc with sinusitis

symptoms can manifest as both pain
sore when pt moves head

10

what are some neuropathic pains

dysesthesia
trigeminal neuralgia
deafferntation
neuroma
post hepatic neuralgia
burning mouth syndrome

11

what is dysesthsia

pain from damage of peripheral nerves

12

what is trigeminal neuralgia

idea of cutting someones spinal trigeminal tract

13

what is deafferation

nerves cut sometimes die off

14

what is a neuroma

formed from deafferation ball nerves spontaneously active

15

what is post hepatic neuralgia

assc with skin deramotme and zoster virus

16

what is burning mouth syndrome

not well known just burning sensation assc with mouth

17

what are a few headache types assc wit pain

migraines
temporal (giant cell) arteritis

18

what is temporal (giant cell) arthritis

arteries become inflam in head and neck

19

what is pain the only possible outcome of

a noxious stimulus

20

what are the non sensory effects of a nociceptive stimulus

protective reflexes
CVD reflexes
alertness

21

what are non sensory effects of thermorecetptive stim

thermoreg reflex
sweating
shivering

22

what are non sensory effects of mechanoreceptive tim

reflexes
stretch
protective
salivary

23

what are non sensory effects of proprioceptive stim

stretch reflexes

24

what are non sensory effects of gustation stim

salivary reflexes

25

what si the definition of pain

an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience assc with actual or potential tissue damage

26

what does the experience of pain depend on

usually strength stim or degree tissue damage
adrenaline
emotions
past experience of pain
ability to comprehend causes/consequences

27

what are other sensations of pain

mechanical - segmental controls - dull pain down
other pains - diffuse noxious inhibit controls
(one pain cancels out other)

28

what is nocicieption

th activation of neural pathways by stimuli that damage or threaten to damage tissue - process

29

what is noxious stimulus

potentially damaging stimulus - e.g. hot water

30

what is nociceptive stimulus

a stimulus that activates nociceptive pathways ( in research electrical stim)

31

what does pains usually signify

something is wrong
- caries
- abscess
- TMJ
- Fracture

32

what does it mean if there is pain in healthy areas

refereed pain
-jaws- sinuses
- cardiac pain in left arm
- phrenic pain in neck

33

is pain useful

learning process
- avoid further damage
- future avoidance

34

what are the types of pain

acute (fast, sharp, slow, brurning)
chronic(long lasting pain)

35

what are the dimensions of pain

sensory - discriminative
- quality, intensity, location
affective - emotional aspects

36

what does sensory nervous system do

informs the CNS of the internal nd external enviro

37

what us the role of the nociceptive system

is to signal the threat or occurrence of injury

38

where are nociceptors especially present in the body

cornea and tooth pulp- where pain is the predominant sensation

39

where are nociceptors lacking in the body

brain
liver
lung parenchyma

40

how can u study pain and nocicceptrion in animals

nociception - electrophysical records
vocalisation - behavioural
reflex studies

41

how can you study pain and nocicception in humans

microneurography
psychophysical studies
blister studies
reflex studies

42

what are nociceptors

receptors that respond to noxious/nociceptive stimuli

43

what are nociceptors classified by

parent axon
stimulus

44

what is nociceptor anatomy

free nerve ending
C - fine unmyelinated
A beta - fine myelinated

45

what are some nociceptor parent axons

C - fine unmylinated, slow burning pain

A beta - fine myelinated, fast sharp pain

46

what are the predominant nerve fibres in tooth pulp

A beta

47

where is double pain associated

in limbs as in head and neck too short a distance to get double pain

48

what are the A fibre nociceptors

mechanical - respond to strong mechanical stimuli

polymodal - respond to all noxious stimuli

49

what are the C fibre nociciepors

non specific
polymodal

50

what si direct nocciceptiive transduction

stimulus acts directly on nerve ending (mechanical, chem, thermal)
mem perm changes - graded potential

51

whats indirect nociceptor transduction

tissue injury/ inflam
chems released -> nerve ending

52

what is mechanical nociceptor transduction

stimulus - pinch, pressure
mech sensitive ion channels

53

what are thermal nociceptor transduction

vanilloid receptors
TRPV1/2 - 1 activated by capsaicin burning pain

54

what are allogenic substances

pain producing substances

55

what chemicals are activate nocicipetove nerve endings

ATP
H+
K+

56

what chemicals activate or sensitise nocicipetive nerve endings

bradykinin
histamine
serotonin

57

what does sensitising nerve endings do

it makes the more responsive, doesn't take as much stimulus to push nerve to threshold

58

what chemicals are sesnitze nocicpeitive nerve endings

prostaglandins

59

what s substance P

present in fine peripheral fibres
role in central transmission

60

what releases substance P

from free nerve endings
- vasodilation
- mast cell deg
- axon reflex

61

what is axon reflex

by activating nerve ending cause sub P released
backfire up another branch

62

what is orthodromic

if enough graded potential causes fire to CNS

63

what is antidromic

backfire up to another branch back o periphery
localised path, AP causes activation release sub P

64

what can substance P do

sensitise system
cause mast cell to release serotonin and/or histamine

65

what do +/- axon reflexes so

effects produce peripheral sensitisation - lowers threshold

66

what is allodynia

pain produced by a stimulus that would not normally produce pain - sunburn

67

what is an analgesic

pain killer

68

what are COX inhibitors

block prostaglandin formation
NSAID
- ibuprofen, aspirin
non selective COX inhib

69

what do COX enzymes do

make prostanglandisn

70

what are the two types of prostaglandins

physiological
- gastric protection
- haemostasis
- vasodilation

inflammatory
- pain and inflam