Pain & Nociception No.2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pain & Nociception No.2 Deck (30)
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1

what re two types of 2nd order neurones

nociceptive specific and non specific

2

what is specific 2nd order nueorns

only input form nociceptors
presence and location at noxious stimulus

3

what are wide dynamic range non specific 2nd order neurones

inputs from nociceptors, mechanoreceptors, thermorcepes
respond to wide range stim intensities

4

where next fro 2nd order neurones

contralateral thalamus va triemino thalamic that
ventrobasal nuclei
posterior/medial nuclei
(emotional/motor resp)
primary sonatosense cortex
insula
cingulate gyrus

5

what are the interactions that ca happen between ptahywas at first synapse

divergence
convergence
hyperalgesia
raidiating
referred pain

6

what are the modulations that can happen at first synapse

gate control
0 segmental
- descending control

diffuse noxious inhibit controls

7

what is divergence

final branching of primary afferent multiple times to loads 2nd neurons

8

what is convergence

numerous pre syn axons to one 2nd order neurone
allows summation
spatial inaccuracies

9

what is the path for discrete pain

stim area X and conscious pain to area X

10

what is hyperalgesia

increased pain form a stimulus that normally provokes pain

11

what is path of hyperalgesia

area X tim cause conscious pain to area X
also sensitise area Y so if this is stim means pain more at area Y

12

what is radiating pain

pain appears tone spread beyond the area affected

13

what is the path of radiating pain

area X tim causes area X and Y to be consciously pain

14

what is referred pain

pain appears originate form an area that is diff to the injured area

15

what is the path for referred pain

area X tim conscious pain in area Y due to inhibit influences in path of area X

16

where is referred pin usually from

a deep to superficial structure
to a tissue that produces sensory activity

17

what is segmental referred pain

heart to left arm
max sinus to teeth
appendix to abdominal skin

18

what are interneurons activated by

segmental inputs
descending controls

19

what sit he gate control theory

gate of inhibitory interneurons modulate pain signals

20

what can be affected by gate theory

A eta and C nocicipetors
A beta mechanoreceps
higher centres

21

what are the excitatory neurotnasmittters

substance P
CGRP
Glutamate

22

what are the inhibitory neurotransmitters

endogenous opioids
Glycine
GABA

23

what is the analgesic pregabalin

decreases release of sub P, CGRP, glutamate

24

what is ketamine

analgesic
receptor antagonisist for glutamate

25

what is morphine

analgesic mimics endogenous opiods

26

what is Gabapentin

analgesic o have simianr effects to GABA

27

what si counter irritation Phenomena

one pain masks another
pain modulation

28

what is an example of counter irritation phenomena

acupuncture

29

what is prolonged pain

long acting neurotransmitters
neuromodulators
Bi stable neurones (active until off)
+ve feedback circuits

30

what are ways of pain control

simple analgesics
LA
surgical interruption
narcotic analgesics counter irritation
GA