Flashcards in Palate, Pharynx and Larynx anatomy Deck (55):
What are the muscles of the floor of the mouth?
Anterior belly of digastric
What is the frenulum?
Connection between tongue and floor of mouth
Cause of Tongue Tie
When the frenulum is too short and results in the tongue being bound to gingivae of the lower teeth
How does the parotid gland drain into the oral cavity/
Via the parotid duct which crosses the masseter and pierces the buccinator - draining into space near second molar.
Which gland is normally palpable
What does the chorda tympani connect with?
The lingual branch of the CNV3 nerve
What mucosa lines the tongue?
What nerve supplies both general and special sensory to the posterior 1/3rd of the tongue
What nerve supplies general sensory to the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue?
Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve
What nerve supplies special sensory to the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue?
Facial Nerve (CN7)
What are the four extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
What is the role of the tongue's extrinsic muscles?
Change position of tongue during mastication swallowing and speech
What is the role four intrinsic skeletal muscles of the tongue?
Modify shape of tongue during functions
Where does the hypoglossal nerve i.e. cranial nerve 12 connect in the CNS
Via rootlets attaching to the medulla oblongata
Where does the hypoglossal nerve exit the skull?
Through the hypoglossal canal on the anterior wall of the foramen magnum (in the occipital bone)
What descends laterally to the carotid sheath?
At what level does the hypoglossal nerve pass anteriorly to the lateral aspect of the tongue?
Level of hyoid bone
How do you test the function of the hypoglossal nerve?
Ask patient to stick out tongue?
If tongue tip points to one side this is suggestive of nerve damage ON THAT SIDE
What passes through the palatine foraminae
Branches of the CNV2 and other vessels
What muscle lifts the soft palate towards skull base?
Levator Veli Palatini
What is the role of the tensor veli palatini?
Tenses the soft palate
Which muscle of the soft palate is NOT supplied by the Vagus nerve?
Tensor Veli Palatini
Supplied by CNV3
What are the five paired muscles of the soft palate?
Levator Veli Palatini
Tensor Veli Palatini
How to clinically test function of CNV3 and CNX
(trigeminal mandibular branch and vagus)
Get patient to open wide and say Ahh
If there is unilateral nerve pathology, uvula will move AWAY from the side of damage
Where do muscles of the pharynx insert?
What innervates all the muscles of the pharynx?
Pharyngeal Plexus of the Vagus nerve
Name the circular muscles of pharynx
Superior Middle and Inferior constrictor muscles of pharynx
(And upper esophageal sphincter - a.k.a. cricopharyngeus)
Name of the longitudinal pharynx muscles?
Role of longitudinal muscles of pharynx?
To elevate pharynx and larynx
Where does the salphingopharyngeus muscle originate?
Cartilage of the pharyngotympanic tube
Whee does the Stylopharyngeus originate?
Where does the Palatopharyngeus originate?
What nerve supplies the Palatopharyngeus and the salphingopharyngeus muscle?
What nerve supplies the Stylopharyngeus?
What nodes drains the palatine tonsil?
What are the functions of the larynx?
Sphincter of the resp tract, allowing for airflow regulation and protection against aspiration
Where is the larynx?
Located between the pharynx and the trachea C4-C6
Enclosed in pre-tracheal fascia of the neck
Between the carotid sheath structures
How does the larynx prevent aspiration?
Larynx is raised which then stimulates the cough reflex
What are the two pairs of vocal cords?
Position and role of true vocal cords?
Found in vocal process of arytenoid cartilage
Their movement impacts sound
Where are the false vocal cords located?
Cartilage of the arytenoid to epiglottis
What is the vallecula?
Area between epiglottis and tongue, where a laryngoscope is often placed
What is the rima glottidis?
The space between the vocal cords
What is the quadrangular membrane?
A layer of sub-mucosa found between the vestibular ligament and the epiglottis
What innervates the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?
What are the tensors of the larynx?
What are the relaxors of the larynx?
What are the adductors of the larynx?
Lateral Crico-arytenoid muscles
What are the abductors of the larynx?
Posterior Crico-arytenoid muscles
Make voice louder
What tumour would drain to superior deep cervical nodes?
Tumour of supra-glottis
What are glottic tumours?
Present on the vocal cords - 95% stay there
Presents with voice changes and possible airway obstruction
Where would sub-glottic tumours initially spread to?
What branch of the vagus innervates all intrinsic muscles (except cricothyroid)
Inferior / Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
What innervates the cricothyroid muscle?
External branch of superior laryngeal nerve