Palate, Pharynx and Larynx anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Palate, Pharynx and Larynx anatomy Deck (55):
1

What are the muscles of the floor of the mouth?

Mylohyoid
Geniohyoid
Anterior belly of digastric

2

What is the frenulum?

Connection between tongue and floor of mouth

3

Cause of Tongue Tie

When the frenulum is too short and results in the tongue being bound to gingivae of the lower teeth

4

How does the parotid gland drain into the oral cavity/

Via the parotid duct which crosses the masseter and pierces the buccinator - draining into space near second molar.

5

Which gland is normally palpable

Sub-mandibular

6

What does the chorda tympani connect with?

The lingual branch of the CNV3 nerve

7

What mucosa lines the tongue?

Lingual

8

What nerve supplies both general and special sensory to the posterior 1/3rd of the tongue

Glossopharyngeal (CN9)

9

What nerve supplies general sensory to the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue?

Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve
i.e. (CNV3)

10

What nerve supplies special sensory to the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue?

Facial Nerve (CN7)

11

What are the four extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

Palatoglossus
Hyoglossus
Styloglossus
Genioglossus

12

What is the role of the tongue's extrinsic muscles?

Change position of tongue during mastication swallowing and speech

13

What is the role four intrinsic skeletal muscles of the tongue?

Modify shape of tongue during functions

14

Where does the hypoglossal nerve i.e. cranial nerve 12 connect in the CNS

Via rootlets attaching to the medulla oblongata

15

Where does the hypoglossal nerve exit the skull?

Through the hypoglossal canal on the anterior wall of the foramen magnum (in the occipital bone)

16

What descends laterally to the carotid sheath?

Hypoglossal nerve

17

At what level does the hypoglossal nerve pass anteriorly to the lateral aspect of the tongue?

Level of hyoid bone

18

How do you test the function of the hypoglossal nerve?

Ask patient to stick out tongue?
If tongue tip points to one side this is suggestive of nerve damage ON THAT SIDE

19

What passes through the palatine foraminae

Branches of the CNV2 and other vessels

20

What muscle lifts the soft palate towards skull base?

Levator Veli Palatini

21

What is the role of the tensor veli palatini?

Tenses the soft palate

22

Which muscle of the soft palate is NOT supplied by the Vagus nerve?

Tensor Veli Palatini
Supplied by CNV3

23

What are the five paired muscles of the soft palate?

Levator Veli Palatini
Tensor Veli Palatini
Palatopharyngeus
Palatoglossus
Musculus Uvulae

24

How to clinically test function of CNV3 and CNX
(trigeminal mandibular branch and vagus)

Get patient to open wide and say Ahh
If there is unilateral nerve pathology, uvula will move AWAY from the side of damage

25

Where do muscles of the pharynx insert?

Midline Raphe

26

What innervates all the muscles of the pharynx?

Pharyngeal Plexus of the Vagus nerve
(CNX)

27

Name the circular muscles of pharynx

Superior Middle and Inferior constrictor muscles of pharynx
(And upper esophageal sphincter - a.k.a. cricopharyngeus)

28

Name of the longitudinal pharynx muscles?

Stylopharyngeus
Palatopharyngeus
Salphingopharyngeus

29

Role of longitudinal muscles of pharynx?

To elevate pharynx and larynx

30

Where does the salphingopharyngeus muscle originate?

Cartilage of the pharyngotympanic tube

31

Whee does the Stylopharyngeus originate?

Styloid process

32

Where does the Palatopharyngeus originate?

Palate

33

What nerve supplies the Palatopharyngeus and the salphingopharyngeus muscle?

Vagus
(CNX)

34

What nerve supplies the Stylopharyngeus?

The Glossopharyngeal
(CN9)

35

What nodes drains the palatine tonsil?

Jugulo-digastric

36

What are the functions of the larynx?

"Voice-box"
Sphincter of the resp tract, allowing for airflow regulation and protection against aspiration

37

Where is the larynx?

Located between the pharynx and the trachea C4-C6
Enclosed in pre-tracheal fascia of the neck
Between the carotid sheath structures

38

How does the larynx prevent aspiration?

Larynx is raised which then stimulates the cough reflex

39

What are the two pairs of vocal cords?

True pair
False pair

40

Position and role of true vocal cords?

Found in vocal process of arytenoid cartilage
Their movement impacts sound

41

Where are the false vocal cords located?

Cartilage of the arytenoid to epiglottis

42

What is the vallecula?

Area between epiglottis and tongue, where a laryngoscope is often placed

43

What is the rima glottidis?

The space between the vocal cords

44

What is the quadrangular membrane?

A layer of sub-mucosa found between the vestibular ligament and the epiglottis

45

What innervates the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?

CNX (vagus)

46

What are the tensors of the larynx?

Cricothyroid muscles
Increase pitch

47

What are the relaxors of the larynx?

Thyroarytenoid Muscles
Decrease pitch

48

What are the adductors of the larynx?

Lateral Crico-arytenoid muscles
Arytenoid muscles
Quietens voice

49

What are the abductors of the larynx?

Posterior Crico-arytenoid muscles
Make voice louder

50

What tumour would drain to superior deep cervical nodes?

Tumour of supra-glottis

51

What are glottic tumours?

Present on the vocal cords - 95% stay there
Presents with voice changes and possible airway obstruction

52

Where would sub-glottic tumours initially spread to?

Para-tracheal Nodes

53

What branch of the vagus innervates all intrinsic muscles (except cricothyroid)

Inferior / Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve

54

What innervates the cricothyroid muscle?

External branch of superior laryngeal nerve

55

How do you clinically test vagus nerve supply to pharynx, larynx and palate?

Ask patient to swallow - splutter/movement of pharynx
Listen to speech - hoarseness?
Ask patient to cough - normal and powerful?