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Dental Pathology > Pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pancreas Deck (39):
1

congenital anomaly: incomplete fusion of dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds/ducts; duct of santorini provides main drainage; may predispose to recurrent acute pancreatitis

pancreas divisum

2

congenital anomaly: head of pancreas incircles the duodenum; can cause duodenal obstruction; associated with pancreatitis, duct obstruction, peptic ulcers

annular pancreas

3

acute condition caused by inflammation and enzymatic necrosis of the pancreas resulting in acute onset of abdominal pain

actue pancreatitis

4

metabolic etiologic agents in actue pancreatitis

alcohol, hyperlipoporteinemia, hypercalcemia, drugs, genetic

5

mechanical etiologic agents in acute pancreatitis

gallstone, traumatic injury, perioperative injury

6

vascular etiologic agents in acute pancreatitis

shock, atheroembolism, polyarteritis nodosa

7

infectious etiologic agents in acute pancreatitis

mumps, coxsackie virus, m. pneumoniae

8

Most common causes of acute pancreatitis

alcohol, gallstones

9

edema, fat necrosis, parenchymal necrosis, hemorrhage, extra-pancreatic manifestations

acute pancreatitis

10

repeated episodes of mild to moderate inflammation with continued loss of pancreatic tissue and subsequent fibrosis; most common in alcoholic males

chronic pancreatitis

11

risks factors of which disease: alcohol, biliary disease, hypercalcemia and hyperlipidemia, pancreas divisum

chronic pancreatitis

12

calcifications associated with ...

chronic pancreatitis

13

localized collection of pancreatic secretions that develop following inflammation; usually unilocular; lack a true epithelial lining; lined by fibrin and granulation tissue

pancreatic pseudocyst

14

4th leading cause of cancer death in US; high mortality rate

pancreatic adenocarcinoma

15

10% experience migratory thrombophlebitis (Trousseau's sign); may have elevated serum CA19-9

pancreatic adenocarcinoma

16

pancreatic adenocarcinoma lesions of head (60%) often involve ..., producing obstructive symptoms and jaundice

ampulla

17

25% of head tumors extend to ...

duodenal wall

18

most functional (hormones released causes symptoms) neuroendocrine tumors are ...

benign

19

most nonfunctional (hormones released by tumor do not cause symptoms) neuroendocrine tumors are ...

malignant

20

associated syndrome of neuroendocrine tumors: hypoglycemia, high insulin levels

hyperinsulinism- insulinoma

21

associated syndrome of neuroendocrine tumors: recalcitrant peptic ulcer disease, gastric hypersecretion induced by gastrin, pancreatic islet cell tumor

zollinger-ellison syndrome (gastrinoma)

22

associated syndrome of neuroendocrine tumors: alpha cell tumor, increased glucagon

glucagonoma

23

associated syndrome of neuroendocrine tumors: delta cell tumor

somatostatinoma

24

associated syndrome of neuroendocrine tumors: watery diarrhea

VIPoma

25

70% women, associated with von Hippel Lindau syndrome, diabetes

serous cystadenoma

26

papillary proliferation of ductal epithelium with excessive mucin production, usually oozing from ampulla of vater, with ductal dilation; treatment resect entire tumor; complex papillary fronds

intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

27

heterogeneous groups of disorders of the endocrine pancreas sharing hyperglycemia as a common feature

diabetes mellitus

28

immunologically-mediated destruction of b-cells

diabetes mellitus type 1

29

insufficiente insulin secretion relative to glucose load; insulin resistance of peripheral tissues

type 2 DM

30

reduction in size and number of islets

type 1 DM

31

amyloid replacement of islets

type 2 DM

32

polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger)

DM

33

microangiopathy, atherosclerosis, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy

DM

34

seen exclusively in type 1 DM; severe insulin deficiency; often precipitated by stress

diabetic ketoacidosis

35

type 2 DM, dehydration from hyperglycemic diuresis; glucose usually higher than 600 mg/dL

nonketotic hyperosmolar coma

36

DM diagnosis: random glucose greater than or equal to ... with classical signs and symptoms

200 mg/dL

37

DM diagnosis: fasting glucose greater than or equal to ... on more than one occasion

126 mg/dL

38

an abnormal ..., in which the glucose is greater than or = to 200 mg/dL 2 hrs after a standard carb load

oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)

39

hemoglobin A1C greater than or = to ...

6.5%