Pancreas Flashcards Preview

Physiology > Pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pancreas Deck (58):
1

What are the two general roles of the pancreas?

Exocrine and endocrine function

2

What are the two protective roles that the pancreas has in it exocrine role?

Secrete bicarb and mucus

3

What is the exocrine digestive role of the pancreas?

Enzyme secretion

4

How do pancreatic secretions make it into the duodenum?

Pancreatic duct>common bile duct

5

What are the cells that make up the glands of the pancreas?

Acinar cells, ductal cells, and goblet cells

6

What is the function of acinar cells of the pancreas?

Protein synthesis
Secretion of enzymes/fluid

7

What is the function of ductal cells?

bicarb secretion
Ion transport
Fluid transport

8

What are the functions of the goblet cells of the pancreas?

Mucin secretion (hydrating, protecting, immunity)

9

What is the function of Trypsinogen? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Protein digestion
Inactive

10

What is the function of chymotrypsin? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Protein digestion
Inactive

11

What is the function of proelastase? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Protein digestion
Inactive

12

What is the function of proprotease E? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Protein digestion
Inactive

13

What is the function of Procarboxypeptidase B? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Protein digestion
Inactive

14

What is the function of Procarboxypeptidase B? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Protein digestion
Inactive

15

What is the function of alpha amylase? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Carb digeston
active

16

What is the function of carboxyl ester lipase? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Lipid digestion
Active

17

What is the function of lipase? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Lipid digestion
Active

18

What is the function of RNase? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Nucleotide digestion
Active

19

What is the function of DNase? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Nucleotide digestion
Active

20

What is the function of colipase? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Helps lipase with Lipid digestion
Active

21

What is the function of Trypsin inhibitor? Is this secreted in an inactive, or active form?

Inhibits trypsin
Active

22

What is the function of CCK and Ach in the pancreas?

Release of enzyme vesicles from the acinar cells of the pancreas

Activation of Cl channel

23

What is the function of VIP and CCK?

VIP enhances the release of enzymes that CCK causes

24

What happens when CCK increases to an extremely high level?

Negative feedback

25

What is the effect of CCK on the gallbladder?

Contraction

26

What is the effect of CCK on the pancreas?

Acinar secretion

27

What is the effect of CCK on the stomach?

Reduced emptying

28

What is the effect of CCK on the sphincter of oddi?

Relaxation

29

What prevents the activation of pancreatic enzymes within vesicle/duct? (3)

1. Inactive form of enzymes
2. Vesicle contain a trypsin inhibitor
3. Low pH of vesicles

30

How is trypsinogen activated?

Enteropeptidase in duodenal wall (from the crypts of Lieberkuhn)

31

How is chymotrypsinogen activated?

Activated trypsin

32

How is proelastase activated?

Activated trypsin

33

How is procarboxypeptidase activated?

Activated trypsin

34

What is the protective function of secretin on the pancreas?

Secreted by duodenum, and induces pancreatic duct cells to secrete bicarb (via activation of bicarb/Cl transporter)

35

What is the negative feedback mechanism that secretin plays a role in with the stomach to protect the duodenum? (3)

1. Increases somatostatin
2. Decrease gastrin
3. Decreases proton pump expression

36

Pancreatic secretions during the interdigestive periods parallel what physiologic pattern?

The migrating motor complex

37

What are the three regulators of the cyclical pattern of secretion of pancreatic enzymes?

1. Stimulation via parasymp
2. Stimulation CCK
3. Inhibition via alpha-adrenergic input (somatostatin and peptide YY)

38

What is the primary regulator of pancreatic secretion during the fed state?

CCK

39

What are the three phases of pancreatic secretion?

1. Cephalic
2. Gastric
3. Intestinal

40

What is the stimulant for the cephalic phase of pancreatic secretion?

Sight smell, mastication

Vagal pathways

41

What is the stimulant for the gastric phase of pancreatic secretion?

Digestion, gastrin, peptides

Vagal/gastrin

42

What are the stimuli that increase acid secretion intestinal phase of pancreatic secretion? What hormone mediates the increase in acid secretion?

AAs, FAs, H+

CCK from AAs and FAs
Secretin from H+

43

What is the function of S cells?

Sense gastric acid and secrete Secretin (causes HCO3 to be produced from the pancreas

44

What chemicals are the most potent stimulators of I cells? What does stimulation of I cells produce?

**Lipids**

Causes CCK to be released

45

What is the effect of Vagal stimulation (mediated by ACh) on ductal and acinar cells?

Increases HCO3 and Enzyme release

46

What are the sequelae of chronic pancreatitis?

Malabsorption syndrome
CA

47

Aberrant release of/blocked flow of pancreatic enzymes leads to what?

Autodigestion of the pancreas / leakage into the blood

48

What are the two main regulators of pancreatic exocrine secretions?

Ach and CCK

49

Lipids are the most potent stimulators of I cells to release CCK. What does this caused?

Delays gastric emptying
Increases bile and pancreatic secretion

50

Which cells of the pancreas are highly efficient at protein synthesis?

Acinar cells

51

Which cells of the pancreas primarily secrete fluid and HCO3?

Ductal cells

52

Which cells of the pancreas specialize in the synthesis of mucin and secretion?

Goblet cells

53

The primary stimulus for the secretion of pancreatic enzymes by acinar cells via what neurotransmitter, and what endocrine molecule?

ACh and CCK

54

What endocrine or neurotransmitter would you want to give a patient to induce secretion of fluid from the pancreas? What transporter does this stimulate?

CCK or ACh

Stimulates Cl/HCO3 transporter

55

What hormone does the duodenum secrete to induce pancreatic duct cells to secrete more HCO3?

Secretin

56

What are the four major protective effects of secretin? (hint, three decrease acid secretion from the stomach)

1. Induces pancreatic ductal cells to secrete HCO3
2. Induces D cells to release somatostatin
3. Decreases gastrin release from G cells
4. Decreases H+ ion channels of the parietal cells

57

The amount of pancreatic enzyme secretion is dependent upon the meal type. In general (BLANK) induce the greatest increase in pancreatic secretions in the fed state.

Fats

58

What is the intracellular ion that is associated with pancreatitis?

Ca