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Flashcards in Pancreas Deck (45):
1

Where does the pancreas lie?

-Retroperitoneal structure that lies between the duodenal loop and the splenic hilum

2

What is the pancreas divided into?

- uncinated process
- neck
- body
-tail

3

What is the pancreas exocrine function?

Secrete trypsin, lipase, and amylase through the ductal system.

4

What is the pancreas endocrine function?

Secrete insulin though the islets of Langerhans

5

What is the normal measurement of the pancreas?

< 3 cm anterior to posterior

6

What is the head of the pancreas anterior to?

IVC

7

What is the head of pancreas medial to?

Duodenum

8

What is the CBD posterior / lateral to?

Pancreatic head

9

The gastroduodenal artery is what in relation to pancreatic head?

Anterior / lateral

10

What is posterior to the neck of the pancreas?

SMA and SMV

11

What is anterior to the uncinated process?

SMA and SMV

12

The body of the pancreas is anterior to what?

Aorta

13

Where is the celiac axis in reference to the pancreas?

Superior border of the pancreas

14

Where is the SMA in reference to the pancreas?

Inferior border

15

What are the branches off the celiac axis?

- Hepatic Artery
-Left gastric artery which divides into the common hepatic artery and the splenic artery

16

Where is the splenic artery in reference to the pancreas?

Superior border of the body and tail of pancreas

17

What is the right gastric artery a branch off of?

Proper hepatic artery

18

What does the GDA divide into?

- right gastroepiploic artery
- superior pancreaticoduodenal artery

19

Where is the splenic vein in reference to the pancreas?

posterior pancreatic tail

20

What makes up the MPV?

Splenic vein and SMV

21

What is the accessory pancreatic duct?

Duct of Santorini

22

What is the main pancreatic duct?

Duct of Wirsung

23

What is the normal measurement for pancreatic ducts?

< 2 mm

24

What are all the structures intact with the pancreatic head?

- IVC
- CBD
- Ampulla of Vater
- GDA
- C loop of duodenum

25

What is Acute pancreatitis?

Inflammation disease producing temporary pancreatic changes
- most common cause is alcoholism and gallstones

26

Know about chronic pancreatitis...

Irreversible destruction due to repeated bouts of pancreatic inflammation

27

What is the most common cause for pancreatitis?

Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis

28

What labs will be elevated in pancreatitis?

- serum amylase
- lipase

29

Know about pancreatic cysts...

-true cysts are very rare
-associated with polycystic kidney disease
- associated with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome

30

What is Cystic Fibrosis?

Exocrine gland disorder resulting in viscous secretions causing pancreatic dysfunction
- meconium ileus is a common associated with condition

31

What are some findings for cystic fibrosis?

- increased pancreatic echogenicity
- gland atrophy
- fibrosis and fatty replacement
- cysts due to ductal obstruction

32

What is a pancreatic pseudocyst?

accumulation of pancreatic fluid and necrotic debris confined by the retroperitoneum

33

Where does the fluid enter in a pseudocyst?

Lesser sac

34

What is a Pancreas Divisum?

Failure of the dorsal and ventral pancreatic ductal systems to fuse during embryonic development resulting in the smaller Santorini's duct draining the pancreas

35

What is an Annular Pancreas?

congenital anomaly where the ventral pancreas encircles the second portion of the duodenum
- present as "double-bubble" sign, dilated stomach and duodenal bulb

36

Know about Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma...

when found, too late. Fatal disease. Survivial rate not high. Mets to Liver.
- solid hypoechoic mass
- Elevated labe : Bilirubin, Alk phos. ,GGT, Amylase, Lipase

37

What is a Whipple Procedure?

Removal of head of pancreas, bile duct, GB, and duodenum is removed.

38

What is a pancreatic serous cystadenoma?

- benign
- associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease
- grape like cysts

39

What is a Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm?

- malignant or potential malignancy
- Increased CEA levels ( carcinoembryonic Antigen)

40

What s the most common Islet sell tumor?

Insulinoma

41

What is a Gastrinoma?

- Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
- Second most common tumor
- Frequently malignant

42

What is a common location for islet cell tumors?

body and tail of pancreas

43

What is Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia?

- Inherited endocrine disorder
- MEN type 1: Wermer Syndrome
- MEN type 2: Sipple's Syndrome

44

What are the most common involvements of MEN?

- Parathyroids
- Pancreatic islet cells
- Pituitary glands
- adrenal glands
- thyroid

45

Summary of chapter of relationships and labs...

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