Pancreas, Liver, and Gallbladder German 9/29/16 Flashcards Preview

Biochem Human Form and Function > Pancreas, Liver, and Gallbladder German 9/29/16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pancreas, Liver, and Gallbladder German 9/29/16 Deck (74):
1

T/F
The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder are gastrointestinal digestive organs

True

2

Which two organs are endocrine organs?

-Liver
-Pancreas

3

What are two functions of the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder?

-Regulate Digestion
-Maintain metabolic homeostasis

4

Exocrine or Endocrine:
Secretion onto a surface.

Exocrine

5

Exocrine or Endocrine:
Epithelial cells with diverse secretion types

Exocrine

6

Exocrine or Endocrine:
Secrete into the vasculature

Endocrine

7

Exocrine or Endocrine:
Epithelial and non-epithelial cells and exocytosis

Endocrine

8

What secretes the primary constituent from the exocrine glands?

The acini

9

What are the three types of exocrine glands?

-Merocrine
-Holocrine
-Apocrine

10

Which type of exocrine gland is the most common and releases products via exocytosis at the apical end of secretory cells?

Merocrine

11

What type of exocrine gland is the secretory cells disintegrate to form the secretion?

Holocrine

12

What type of exocrine gland is the secretion of membrane-enclosed apical cytoplasm containing proteins and lipids?

Apocrine

13

What type of exocrine gland is the salivary glands and the pancreas?

Merocrine

14

What type of exocrine gland is a sebaceous gland?

Holocrine

15

What type of exocrine gland is a mammary gland?

Apocrine

16

What cells of the pancreas are responsible for endocrine function?

Islets of Langerhans

17

What is an endocrine function of the pancreas?

Release protein and polypeptide hormones

18

What cells of the pancreas are responsible for exocrine function?

Acinar cells

19

What is the exocrine function of the pancreas?

Release digestive molecules into the duodenum

20

What do the acinar cells of the panceas release?

Zymogen granules into intercalated ducts

21

What four things are found in the zymogen granules?

-A-amylase
-Lipases
-Nucleases
-Proteases

22

What does trypsinogen do?

Cleaved into trypsin via enterokinase

23

What does trypsin do?

cleaves chymotrypsinogen to chymotrypsin

24

What is elastase activated by?

Trypsin

25

Why are zymogen granules activated in the duodenum?

To protect the acinar cells

26

What cells produce HCO3- to create an alkaline solution that flushes secretions into the duodenum?

Controacinar cells

27

What does CCK and secretin induce?

Acinar and controacinar exocrine activity

28

T/F CCK is a neuropeptide of the central and enteric nervous systems

True

29

What are the four cells found in the islets of langerhan?

-Alpha cells
-Beta Cells
-Delta cells
-PP cells

30

What do the alpha cells do?

-Secrete glucagon

31

What percentage of the islets of langerhan do the alpha cells make up?

30%

32

What do the beta cells do?

Secrete insulin

33

What percentage of the islets of langerhan to the beta cells make up?

65%

34

What do the delta cells do?

Secrete somatostatin

35

What percentage of the islets of langerhan to the delta cells make up?

4%

36

What do the PP cells do?

Secrete pancreatic polypeptide

37

What percentage of the islets of langerhan do the PP cells make up?

less than 1%

38

What are the four functions of the liver?

-Blood reservoir
-Bile secretion
-Detoxification
-Metabolic homeostasis

39

How does the liver help maintain blood homeostasis?

-Carbohydrate metabolism
-Lipid Metabolism
-Protein Metabolism
-Storage
-Serum protein production

40

The liver can have what percentage of blood at any given time?

20%

41

What are the major cells types of the liver?

-Hepatocyte
-Kupffer cells
-Sinusoidal epithelial cells

42

Which type of liver cell has polarized epithelial cells?

Hepatocyte

43

Which type of liver cell metabolizes carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids?

Hepatocytes

44

Which type of liver cell produces bile from cholesterol?

Hepatocytes

45

Which type of liver cell detoxifies endogenous and xenobiotic molecules?

Hepatocytes

46

What type of cell is a liver macrophage?

Kupffer cell

47

Which type of liver cell has large pores between cells (fenestrae)?

Sinusoidal cells

48

What is the normal volume of blood in the liver?

450 mL

49

How much expansion of blood can the liver hold?

.5 to 1 L

50

T/F
The portal vein does not allow first pass metabolism

False
It does allow first pass metabolism

51

What are the three structures found in the function liver architecture classification system?

-Classic hepatic lobule
-Portal lobule
-Hepatic Acinus

52

What does the classic hepatic lobule do?

-Blood drains from the portal vein and hepatic artery to the central vein
-Endocrine focus

53

What does the portal lobule do?

-Bile drains from hepatocytes to the bile ducts
-Exocrine focus

54

What does the hepatic acinus do?

-Microvasculature divided into circulatory zones
-Gradient of hepatocyte oxygenation

55

How many zones are found in the hepatic acinus?

Three

56

What occurs in zone I?

Periportal zone; Oxygen and nutrient rich

57

What occurs in zone II?

Intermediate zone

58

What occurs in zone III?

Peripheral zone; oxygen poor

59

What three things does the liver store?

-Vitamins
-Fatty acids
-Iron

60

What is first pass metabolism?

Allows the liver to act as a sensor for glucose and lipids

61

How many phases are there in xenobiotic and molecule elimination?

two

62

What phase are drugs/molecules converted to more polar compounds and oxidized?

Phase I

63

What phase do you find cytochrome p450 and microsomal oxidases?

Phase I

64

What phase do drugs/molecules conjugate to hydrophilic molecules?

Phase II

65

What phase do you find transferases?

Phase II

66

How are metabolites eliminated?

Bile
Urine

67

What does bile contain?

-Bile salts
-Cholesterol
-Phospholipids'
-Bilirubins
-Waste

68

What does bile do to intestinal contents?

Alkanilizes them

69

What zone do you find cytochrome p450s from phase I?

Zone III

70

T/F
Bile is recycled

True

71

What cells produce bile?

Hepatocytes

72

What hormone stimulates bile release?

CCK

73

How does CCK stimulate bile release?

-Contracts gallbladder smooth muscle
-Relaxes hepatopancreatic sphincter

74

What hormone stimulates the secretion of HCO3 into the bile?

Secretin