Flashcards in Paper 1 Deck (15):
Mention 4 points from Woodrow Wilsons 14 points.
1. Abolition of secret diplomacy
2. Free navigation at sea for all nations in war and peace.
3. Free trade between countries (G lost right to Trade in China and Egypt)
4. Disarmament by all countries (Done so by the loosers)
5. Colonies to have a say in their own future. (Not happen, G. Colonies to LON, Ottoman colonies self control, Br and Fr gained Mandates in the region)
6. German troops to leave Russia. (Done so)
7. Restoration of independece for Belgium. (Given Eupen and Malmedy)
8. France to regain Alsace-Lorraine (Treaty of Versailles)
9. Frontier between Austria and Italy adjusted along the lines of nationality. (South Tyrol went to Italy, not actually Self-determination)
10. Self-determination for people of the Turkish Empire and permanent opening of the Dardanelles. (done so, Smyrna wait five years before plebiscite)
11. Serbia to have access to the sea. (Not, part of Yugoslavia instead)
12. Self-Determination for the people of Austria-Hungary.(Not the case)
13. Poland to become an independent state with sea access. (Treaty of Versailles)
14. Setup of a League of Nations to preserve peace.(somewhat achieved)
What was collective security?
Preserving peace trough countries collaborating.
An issue was to be dealt with in the Leagues assembly, or if unsuccessful, to the Council. Use of economic sanctions, political pressure, and (in theory at least) military power. Although the league did not have an army of its own since Britain had resisted the option when proposed by France.
What were the problems face by the LON?
-Changing membership (Ger, Jap, USSR, Ita, Spa, Ireland all became member and left at some point)
-Absence of major powers (No US, USSR only for limited time)
- WWI losers originally excluded
What were the attempts at strengthening the League?
In 1923 France suggested a Treaty of Mutual Assistance (requiring all members to assist a victim of aggression
In 1924 the Geneva Protocal suggested by France would have made arbitration compulsory.
Both initiatives were rejected by Britain, it's dominions and Scandinavia.
Describe the Ruhr Crisis
Only a year after the signing of the Treaty of aversailles, reparations which was vital for rebuilding the French economy became a problem and although accepting some proposals at first, the French did not accept it when Germany wanted a four year suspension. French and Belgian troops supported by Italy moved into Ruhr and take what they were owed. German government instructed workers to strike and continued to pay them - inflation turned into hyper-inflation.
Crisis ended by the Dawes plan which guaranteed reparations by two mortgages on German railway and industry (supplemented by taxation on German population). A US reparations agent reside in Germany to supervise repayments, which were reduced. France accepted because of US being involved in the situation.
French troops withdrawn in 1925.
France alienated from Allies and more hostility between France and Germany.
France, a permanent member, had failed to go to the Assembly and even blocked Swedish and British attempts to do so.
What was the Locarno spirit?
A mood in Europe following the Locarno Agreement that gave hope of future security.
What was agreed upon at the Locarno Conference in February 1925?
Treaty guaranteeing the borders between Germany and France and Belgium.
Agreement to change the Eastern border of Germany with Poland and Czechoslovakia.
Germany admitted into LON
Agreement bode well for collective security.
However, the agreement had undermined the Treaty of Versailles and LON.
Italy had not been able to negotiate agreement with Germany regarding their border,
Describe the Young Plan.
Aim to address problems remaining after Dawes plan.
The plan from 1929 further reduced the total sum to be paid by Germany, set a date for completion of repayments
(1988) and continued US involvement in reparation payments.
Britains and France also agreed to end their occupation of the Rhineland 5 years ahead of time.
What did the Kellogg-Briand pact achieve in August 1928?
It renounced war as an instrument of national policy, governments would pursue their objectives through peaceful means.
Describe the Manchurian crisis.
Japanese army invades Manchuria in 1931 after a bomb explosion blamed on China. (Dispute about whether Japanese forces planted the bomb themselves).
China went to the League who condemned Japan's actions and ordered the troops to withdraw. Japanese government agreed but he army did not. A commission under Lord Lytton investigated the crisis(took >1 year). Japan leaved the league.
The Great Depression made members preoccupied with domestic problems and unwilling to apply economic sanctions. US (main trade partner of Japan not even member).
Military solutions not viable due to Manchuria being remote.
-Collective security had failed due to a lack of support.
What and when was the Abyssinian crisis?
In 1932 Mussolini started planning for annexation of Abyssinia (now Ethiopia and Eritrea) to link Italian African territory with Italian Somaliland and provide Italians with land to settle.
Dec 1934 Italian and Abyssinian forces clashed. October 1935 a full scale invasion began. Britain and France did not want to lose Italy as an ally against Hitler. Signed the Hoare-Laval pact allowing Italy 2/3 of Abyssinia - British and French people were outraged and Hoare and Laval resigned.
The league only made weak sanctions on Italy not even embargoing oil export to Italy.
- Marked the failure of the League of Nations
What and between whom was the Treaty of Rapallo?
Military cooperation between Russia and Germany was disguised as trade agreement. Met with mistrust from Britain and France. Poland alarmed over the union between her two enemies.
Describe the Washington Naval Agreement (or conference).
In 1921-1922 USA, Britain, Japan, France and Italy set naval tonnage to a 10:10:6:3:3 ratio. Battleships were to be scraped until the quota was met (525,000 tones for US and Britain), and no new battleships built for 10 years.
Limited use of submarines in war and banned poison gas.
The Four Power Treaty: USA, Britain, France and France agreed to accept Asian possessions and defend each other if necessary.
A Nine Power Treaty: US, Japan, China, France, Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Portugal. Reaffirmed Open Door Policy and guaranteed territorial integrity of China. Financial assistance to China. Japan gave China back Shantung Peninsula.
Conference the first step to disarmament, avoided economic cost of naval race. France felt like 2. Rank naval power.
Limited given the small amount of participants.
Describe the results of the London Naval Conference of 1930
Revised the Washington agreement changing the war ship ratio to 10:10:7:3:3 to Japan's advantage. France and Italy refuse to take part. Constraint also put on cruisers, destroyers and submarines.
Treaty did however still allow for naval escalation if under agresssion from non-signing power.
Treaty re-negotiated in 1936. Japan wished no longer to be limited and inferior to US and Britain, walked out of conference. Disarmament turned meaningless with German and Russian rearmament.