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Flashcards in Paper 1 Deck (28):
1

Describe how the national grid works

Step-up transformer: steps up voltage so less power lost through heat, less current.

Step down transformer: increases current, lowers voltage so it is safe for us to use at home.

2

What was rutherfords experiment

Fired alpha particles at gold foil (positive)
Most went straight through, some bounced back
Showed positively charged nucleus with negative electrons outside

3

Describe pressure in a balloon

The gas particles are moving about randomly and exert a pressure on the inside walls. The more particles (air) inside the more movement, which means more collisions and more pressure.

4

What are the two equations for power i ph the energy unit

Work done / time

Energy transferred / time

5

What are the energy transfers

Mechanically
Electrically
Radiation

6

What are the 2 equations for power in electricity unit

Potential difference x current

Current^2 x resistance

7

What is latent heat and the different types

The energy required to change a substance state.

Fusion - solid > liquid
Vaporisation - liquid > vapour

8

Alpha, beta and gamma descriptions

Alpha = 2 protons 2 neutrons, mass of 4, +2 charge, stopped by paper, most ionising

Beta = electron, mass of 0, -1 charge, stopped by aluminium, kinda ionising

Gamma = proton, mass of 0, 0 charge, stopped by tick lead, least ionising

9

What is the equation involving spring constant and extension

Elastic potential = 0.5 x spring constant x extension^2

10

What is resistance measured in

Ohms

11

What are the energy stores

Thermal
Kinetic
GPE
Elastic potential
Chemical
Electrostatic

12

What are the colours of the wires

Live wire = brown
Neural wire = blu
Earth wire = green/yellow

13

Compare the current in a series and parallel circuit

Series = always the same
Parallel = is split down each leg, adds up to total

14

Compare the resistance in a series and parallel circuit

Series = two resistors added together
Parallel = 1 / resistance

15

Compare the voltage in a series and parallel circuit

Series = voltage around resistors add up to total
Parallel = the same on each branch

16

What is density

Mass / volume

17

What is specific heat capacity

The energy required to raise 1kg of that substance by 1 degrees

18

What is internal energy

Total energy stored inside a system by the particles

19

What is potential difference

V = I x R
Current x resistance

20

What is GPE

Mass x gravity x height

21

What is efficiency

Useful output / total input

22

What is decay

When nuclei are unstable they emit radioactive particles.

23

What is kinetic energy

0.5 x mass x velocity^2

24

What is AC/DC

AC = alternating current (at home +230 to -230, 50 times a second: 50Hz)

DC = direct current - current flows in one direction only

25

What is the equation for charge flow

Current x time

26

Name some renewable resources with advantages and disadvantages

Biofuel
Tidal
Wind
Solar

Ads = non-polluting, never run out,
Dis = weather dependant, expensive

27

Name non-renewable resources with advantages and disadvantages.

Fossil fuel
Nuclear

Ads = cheap, efficient, easily available
Dis = polluting, run out

28

What are the uses of alpha beta and gamma

Alpha - smoke detectors
Beta - paper production
Gamma - radiotherapy