Paper 1: Anatomy & Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Paper 1: Anatomy & Physiology Deck (75):
1

Abduction

Movement away from the midline of the body.

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Adduction

Movement towards the midline of the body.

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Aerobic exercise

The use of oxygen for the duration of the exercise, usually at moderate intensity at a continuous rate.

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Agility

The ability to change direction at speed.

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Agonist

The muscle that works to create the movement.

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Antagonist

The muscle that works in the opposite way to the agonist.

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Antagonistic muscle action

A pair of muscles that work together to produce movement with one muscle contracting whilst the other muscle relaxes.

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Anaerobic exercise

Exercise which does not allow for the predominant usage of oxygen, usually high or very high intensity for a short period of time.

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Articulating bones

Bones that move relative to each other at a joint.

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Axes of rotation

A line around which the body can turn.

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Balance

The ability to stay upright or stay in control of body movements.

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Blood vessels

Tubular structures that carry blood around the body.

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Weight training

A method of training that uses free weights or resistance machines used to develop strength.

14

Warm up

Preparatory exercises to prepare the body and mind for physical activity, aiming to increase breathing and heart rate and muscle temperature.

15

Transverse plane

An imaginary line which divides the body horizontally into top and bottom.

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Transverse axis of rotation

Passes horizontally from left to right.

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Tidal volume

The amount of air which enters the lungs during normal inhalation at rest.

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Tendon

A tough yet flexible band of fibrous tissue which joins muscle to bone.

19

Synovial joint

An area where two or more bones meet within a joint capsule and allows a wide range of movement to occur.

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Stroke volume

The amount of blood pumped out of the heart during each contraction.

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Strength

The maximum force a muscle or group of muscles can apply against a resistance.

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Speed

The ability to move quickly across the ground or move limbs rapidly through movements.

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Specificity

The training must be matched to the needs of the sporting activity and individual.

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Sagittal plane

An imaginary line which divides the body vertically into left and right sides.

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Rotation

The turning of a body part about its long axis as if on a pivot.

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Reversibility

Any adaptation that takes places as a result of training will be lost if you stop training.

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Redistribution of blood flow

When you exercise the blood is diverted from inactive areas to the muscles that are being used, completed through vasodilation and vasoconstriction.

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Red blood cells

Oxygen carrying cells containing haemoglobin.

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Reaction time

The ability to respond quickly to stimuli.

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Rate of recovery

The speed at which the body returns back to normal after exercise.

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Progression

Gradual increases in exercise in order for the body to adapt through overload.

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Power

The ability to exert a maximal force in as short a time as possible.

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Plyometrics

Involves jumping, bounding and hopping exercises.

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Physical activity

Movement of the body by the skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure.

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Overload

A greater than normal stress that is applied on the body for training adaptations to take place.

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Muscular endurance

The ability to move your body and muscles repeatedly without fatiguing.

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Minute volume/ventillation

The volume of gas inhaled or exhaled from the lungs per minute.

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Mechanical advantage

1st and 2nd class levers provide mechanical advantage; this means that a larger load can be moved with a smaller amount of effort.

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Longitudinal axis of rotation

Passes vertically from the top to the bottom of your body. A 360 degree turn rotates through this axis.

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Ligament

A short band of tough and flexible tissue connecting bones together and stabilising the joint.

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3rd Class Lever

A lever which has the effort placed between the load and the fulcrum, and the effort must travel a shorter distance and be greater than the load.

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2nd Class Lever

A lever that has the load and the effort on the same side of the fulcrum, with the load nearer the fulcrum.

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1st Class Lever

A lever in which the fulcrum is positioned between the load and the effort.

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Lactic acid

A waste product produced in the muscle tissues during strenuous exercise where the anaerobic energy system is in use.

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Interval training

Training that incorporates periods of exercise and rest.

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Hypertrophy

The increase in size of skeletal or cardiac muscle, often as a result of training or exercise.

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HIIT (High intensity interval training)

Exercise that alternates between high intensity and periods of recovery.

48

Heart Rate

Number of heart beats per minute.

49

Gas exchange

The movement of gases taking place at the alveoli and capillaries.

50

Frontal plane

An imaginary line which divides the body from front to back vertically.

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Frontal axis of rotation

Run horizontally from the front to back of your body.

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Flexion

A bending movement around a joint in a limb, reducing the angle at the joint.

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Flexibility

The amount or range of movement around a joint.

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Fitness

Your ability to meet the physical demands placed on you by the environment.

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Type

The kind of exercise that takes place.

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Time

How long you exercise for.

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Intensity

How hard and intense the exercise is.

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Frequency

The number of times exercise takes place.

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Fixator

A muscle which acts as the stabiliser and helps the agonist work effectively of one part of the body during movement of another part.

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Muscle Fatigue

Muscle tiredness when the body has a lack of energy.

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Fartlek training

Training which varies in intensity and duration and consists of burst of intense effort alternating with less strenuous activity.

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Extension

A straightening movement around a joint.

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Pulmonary Circulation

The circulatory loop that controls blood flow from the heart to the lungs.

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Systemic circulation

The circulatory loop that controls blood flow from the heart to the rest of the working muscles and organs.

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Coronary Heart Disease

Where the blood vessels are narrowed, and blood flow and oxygen to the heart is reduced.

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Cool down

The act of allowing physiological activity to return to normal gradually after strenuous exercise by engaging in less strenuous exercise.

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Co-ordination

The ability to move two or more body parts under control, smoothly and efficiently.

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Continuous training

Training that involves activity without rest intervals. It can be performed at any intensity.

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Circumduction

The circular movement of a joint. It is a movement pattern that combines flexion, extension, adduction and abduction.

70

Circuit training

Series of alternate exercises performed at stations that focus on different muscle groups.

71

Cardiovascular endurance

The ability to continue exertion while getting energy from the aerobic system used to supply the body with energy.

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Cardiac Output

The volume of blood pumped per minute by each ventricle of the heart.

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Cartilage

A tough, elastic, fibrous connective tissue.

74

Capilarisation

The development of blood capillaries in the body which increases through long term effects of exercise.

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Breathing rate

The number of breaths taken in a minute.