Paper 1 Vocab Flashcards Preview

A level Physics > Paper 1 Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Paper 1 Vocab Deck (52):
1

Speed

Rate of change of distance, speed=distance/time

2

Velocity

Rate of change of displacement, velocity=displacement/time

3

Displacement

The vector measurement of distance in a certain direction

4

Vector quantity

Quantity which has both magnitude and direction

5

Scalar quantity

Quantity which has only magnitude

6

Average Speed

The total distance for a journey over the total time taken for the journey

7

Instantaneous Speed

The speed at any particular instant in time on a journey, which can be found from the gradient of the tangent to a distance-time graph at that time

8

Acceleration

The vector defined as the rate of change of velocity

9

Resultant Force

The total force/vector sum of forces acting on a body when all the forces acting are added together accounting for their direction

10

Free-Body force diagram

Has the object isolated, and all the forces that act on it are drawn in at the points where they act, using arrows

11

Equilibrium

There is zero resultant moment. It will have zero acceleration

12

Principle of Moments

A body will be in equilibrium if the sum of clockwise moments acting on it is equal to the sum of the anticlockwise moments

13

Centre of Gravity

The point through which the weight of an object appears to act

14

Newton's First Law

An object will remain at rest, or in a state of uniform motion, until acted upon by a resultant force

15

Newton's Second law

If an object's mass is constant, the resultant force needed to cause an acceleration is given by the equation F=ma

16

Newton's Third Law

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

17

Kinematics

The study of the description of the motion of objects

18

Uniform Motion

Motion where there is no acceleration

19

Resolution/Resolving Vectors

The determination of a pair of vectors, at right angles to each other, that sums to give the single vector they were resolved from

20

Projectile

A moving object on which the only force of significance acting is gravity. The trajectory is thus pre-determined by its initial velocity

21

Gravitational Potential Energy (Ep)

The energy an object has by virtue of its position in a gravitational field

22

Kinetic Energy (Ek)

The energy an object has by virtue of its movement

23

Conservation of Energy

Requires that energy can never be created or destroyed

24

Work Done

The product of a force and the distance moved in the direction of the force
W=Fs

25

Energy

The property of an object that gives it the capacity to do work. A change in the amount of energy of an object could be equated to work being done, even if this is not mechanical

26

Power

Rate of energy transfer

27

Efficiency

The ability of a machine to convert energy usuefully
Efficiency = Useful energy output/ Total energy input
Efficiency = Useful power output/ Total power input

28

Momentum

The measure of an object's motion, given by the equation:
Momentum = mass * velocity, p=mv

29

Conservation of linear momentum

The vector sum of momenta of all objects in a system is the same before and after any interaction between the objects provided no external forces are added

30

Explosion

A situation in which a stationary object or system of joined objects separates into component parts, which move off at different velocities. Momentum must be conserved in explosions

31

Charge

A fundamental property of some particles. It is the cause of the electromagnetic force, and it is a basic aspect of describing electrical effects.

32

Coulomb

Unit of charge. One coulomb is the quantity of charge that passes a point in a conductor per second when one ampere of current is flowing in the conductor. The amount of charge on a single electron is -1.6*10^-19C

33

Current

Rate of flow of charge. Current can be calculated from the equation:
Current = Charge passing a point/time for charge to pass
I=Q/t

34

Ampere

The movement of 1C of charge per second

35

Voltage

A measure of the amount of energy a component transfers per unit of charge

36

Electromotive Force/emf

A supply voltage

37

Potential Difference/pd

The correct term for voltage for a component that is using electrical energy in a circuit and transferring this energy into other forms

38

Electronvolt/eV

The amount of energy an electron gains by passing through a voltage of 1 V, 1 eV=1.6*10^-19

39

Resistance

The opposition to the flow of electrical current

40

Ohm's law

The current through a component is directly proportional to the voltage across it, providing the temperature remains the same

41

Resistivity

The general property of a material to resist the flow of electric current

42

Drift Velocity

The slow overall movement of the charges in a current

43

Transport Equation

I=nAve, I=Current, n=Number of electrons, A=cross-sectional area, e=Charge on an electron

44

Semiconductors

Materials that have a lower resistivity than insulators, but higher than conductors. They usually only have small numbers of delocalised electrons that are free to conduct

45

Conduction Band

A range of energy amounts that electrons in a solid material can have which delocalises them to move more freely through the solid

46

Valence Band

A range of energy amounts that electrons in a solid material can have which keeps them close to one particular atom

47

Critical Temperature

The temperature below which a material's resistivity instantly drops to 0

48

Kirchhoff's First Law: Electric Current Rule

The algebraic sum of currents entering a junction is equal to zero

49

Kirchoff's Second Law: Voltages Circuit Rule

Around a closed loop, the algebraic sum of the emfs is equal to the algebraic sum of the pds

50

Potential Divider

This type of circuit is designed to provide specific voltage values by splitting an emf across two resistors

51

Potentiometer

A version of the potential divider in which a single resistance wire is used in two parts to form two resistances. A sliding connection on the wire can be adjusted to alter the comparative resistances and thus alter the output pd from the potentiometer

52

Internal Resistance

The resistance of an emf source