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Flashcards in Paper 2 Deck (35):
1

Name the part of the cell where food is made in leaves

Chloroplasts

2

Explain how the shape of a root hair cell helps to take in water (2 marks)

Longer

Increased surface area

More water absorbed

3

Describe the process by which water enters the root hair cells (3 marks)

Osmosis

High concentration of water to a low concentration of water

Water potential to low

Selectively permeable membrane

4

Living organisms share certain basic characteristics.
Complete the descriptions of some characteristics of living organisms

Characteristic: Description:
Respiration
Growth
Producing offspring

Characteristic: Description:
Respiration. Release of energy
Growth. Increase in no. Cells
Reproduction Producing offspring

5

A poisonous snake bites a man's toe

The venom travels to the heart in the largest vein called the......... The right atrium contracts and pumps the venom through the atrio-ventricular valve into the right…… The muscles of this heart chamber contract and pump the venom through a ......... valve and along the ...... artery to the...….… the venom returns from this organ to the left atrium of the heart in a vein. It then enters the chamber of the heart with the thickest wall, Made of……… Tissue. This chamber pumps the blood out of the heart into the largest artery called the…….A branch of this blood vessel transports the venom to the brain

Vena cava
Ventricle
Semi lunar
Pulmonary
Lungs
Muscles/cardiac
Aorta

6

Name the process by which muscles move food through the gut

Peristalsis

7

What biological term describes the process of removing undigested food from the body

Egestion/defecation

REJECT EXCRETION!

8

A river is polluted by some raw sewage. This causes changes in the number of microorganisms in the river. This in turn has an effect on the number of large fish in the river.

Describe and explain these changes (5 marks)

Increasing number of microorganisms

Breakdown/decompose/decomposition

Bacteria/fungi

Oxygen reduced

Respiration

Fish died

decrease in number of fish

9

Name the substance used to test for starch

Iodine

10

If Pollen grains contain starch, and iodine is added to them, what colour will they be after the test

Blue-black

11

The table below lists four stages and a description of what happens at each stage in the production of fruit flavoured yoghurt

1: raw milk is heated to 90°C for 30 minutes
2: the milk is cooled to 40°C and bacteria are then added
3: the mixture is kept at 40°C for several hours until yoghurt is made
4: fruit is sterilised and added to the yoghurt

Suggest why stage one is needed

To kill/remove bacteria

12

The table below lists four stages and a description of what happens at each stage in the production of fruit flavoured yoghurt

1: raw milk is heated to 90°C for 30 minutes
2: the milk is cooled to 40°C and bacteria are then added
3: the mixture is kept at 40°C for several hours until yoghurt is made
4: fruit is sterilised and added to the yoghurt

Why must the milk be cool stewing stage 2?

So the Added bacteria is not killed

13

The table below lists four stages and a description of what happens at each stage in the production of fruit flavoured yoghurt

1: raw milk is heated to 90°C for 30 minutes
2: the milk is cooled to 40°C and bacteria are then added
3: the mixture is kept at 40°C for several hours until yoghurt is made
4: fruit is sterilised and added to the yoghurt

Explain why the mixture is kept in 40°C are several hours during stage 3 (2 marks)

Optimum/best/ideal

for enzymes/for bacteria to reproduce

14

The table below lists four stages and a description of what happens at each stage in the production of fruit flavoured yoghurt

1: raw milk is heated to 90°C for 30 minutes
2: the milk is cooled to 40°C and bacteria are then added
3: the mixture is kept at 40°C for several hours until yoghurt is made
4: fruit is sterilised and added to the yoghurt

Suggest why fruit is sterilised before being added to the yoghurt (2 marks)

Kill/remove bacteria

So yoghurt is not spoiled

15

Explain how nitrogen fixing bacteria helps the crops to grow (4 marks)

Nitrogen
Gas from air
To ammonium
Amino acids
Protein

16

One disadvantage of chemical fertilisers that they may need to be applied several times in a group of the crop. Give one reason for this.

We fertilisers are used up/leached/washed away

17

What is meant by the term transgenic?

Transfer of genes/allele/DNA/genetic material from an organism to different organism

18

Name the pathogen causes pneumonia

Pneumococcus

19

Explain how white blood cells help a person recover from pneumonia (5 marks)

Phagocyte ingest/Engulf/eat

Digest/breakdown

lymphocytes

Antibodies

Clump/stick/neutralise

20

Give the balance symbol equation for respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O

21

Give two reasons, other than respiration why 90% of the energy in herbivores is not transferred to carnivores

Not eaten/inedible

Not digested/indigestible

Excreted

Death/decomposers

22

Gas exchange takes place in alone.

Explain why the concentration of oxygen in the blood changes as it travels along the capillary (2 marks)

Diffusion of oxygen from alveoli to capillary

High concentration to low concentration

Concentration lower in capillary

23

Emphysemas alone disease caused by smoking cigarettes. It damages the alveoli and decreases the surface area of the alveoli.

What effect would emphysema have on the value for oxygen uptake

Lower value

24

Describe how carbon dioxide gets into a leaf

Diffusion

Stomata opens to allow CO2 in

25

In the process that using carbon dioxide to make carbohydrates

Photosynthesis

26

Mainly tissue implants that transports carbohydrates

Phloem

27

Name the carbohydrates that transported in the phloem as a product of photosynthesis

Sucrose

28

Explain why supplier carbohydrates is needed for the update the minerals by the roots. (3 marks)

Active uptake

Low concentration to high concentration

Energy

Respiration

29

Adjustments made by the eye to produce a clear image on the retina

What is the name of this process?

Focusing/ accommodation

30

Fusion of male &
female gametes

What is the name of this process?

Fertilisation

31

Evaporation of
water from leaves
of a plant

What is the name of this process?

Transpiration

32

Maintaining a
constant level of
substances in the body

What is the name of this process?

Homeostasis

33

Growth of a plant shoot
towards light

What is the name of this process?

(photo)Tropism

34

Increasing the diameter
of small arteries

What is the name of this process?

Vasodilation

35

Human DNA contains the gene to make insulin. Bacteria can be modified to contain this gene. Describe the steps used to do this. (5 marks)

Restriction enzyme

Cut DNA/Gene

Ligase

Join/inserts/put into DNA

Plasmids

Factor

Recombinant DNA