Flashcards in Paper 2 Deck (37):

1

## What are Newton’s 3 laws

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1 = an object will remain stationary or moving at a constant speed and direction, unless a resultant force acts upon it.

2 = the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the resultant force acting in it (F=ma).

3 = for every force there is an equal and opposite force.

2

## What are contact and non-contact forces

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Contact - when an object strikes another one (air resistance, friction)

Non contact - the opposite (magnetic force)

3

## What is the difference between permanent and induced magnets

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Permanent = magnets that have their atoms aligned all the time.

Induced = magnets that have their atoms aligned under the influence of an external magnet.

4

## What is the equation involving force and distance

### Work done = force x distance

5

## How to increase the force in a magnetic system

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Increase the current

Increase the strength of the magnet

6

## Why does every car have a top speed

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Because as you go faster the air resistance gets bigger up until the point where they’re equal.

At this point the forces are balanced and the car goes at a constant velocity.

7

## What happens to the period of the wave as the frequency increases

### It deacreases

8

## What is the equation for elastic potential energy

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0.5 x k x e^

0.5 x spring constant x extension^

9

## What is the difference between thinking and breaking distance and what increases them.

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Thinking = the distance travelled during your reaction time:

- high speed, drugs, tiredness, alcohol

Breaking = the distance travelled once your foot hits the brake:

- high speed, weather, surface of road, hot brakes, more mass

10

## What is the equation for acceleration

###
Change in velocity / time

Or...

(End velocity - start velocity) / time

11

## What happens to a current-carrying wire when placed in a magnetic field.

### The magnetic field created by the current interacts with the field from the magnets and creates a force on the wire.

12

## What is hookes law

### The force applied to a spring is directly proportional to its extension... F=ke

13

## What is reflection

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When waves hit a smooth solid object they ‘bounce’ (reflect) off it.

14

## What are longitudinal waves

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The oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.

For example, sound waves.

They have compressions which are where the waves are close together.

They have rarefactions where the waves are spread out.

15

## What is displacement

### A distance

16

## What do like and unlike poles do

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Like poles repel

Unlike poles attract

17

## What are the two suvat equations

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If there’s no distance…

a = v-u / t

If there’s no time...

v^ = u^ + 2as

18

## What is the equation for speed and what is difference between speed and velocity

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Speed = distance / time

Velocity is just speed with a direction

19

## What is a solenoid and what does its magnetic field look like

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When you coil the wire.

It looks very similar to a bar magnets.

20

## What is the equation that involves field strength, current and length

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F = BIL

force = field strength x current x length

21

## What can you say about the conservation of momentum

### Momentum before = momentum after

22

## What is the equation for pressure

### Pressure = force / area

23

## What is frequency

### The number of waves passing a point each second

24

## How to increase speed on a car

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Use lighter materials

Make it streamlined

More powerful engine

25

## Name the electromagnetic spectrum from smallest to largest

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Gamma

X-rays

UV

Visible

Infrared

Microwaves

Radiowaves

26

## What does everything stand for in a suvat eqation

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S = distance (m)

U = start velocity (m/s)

V = end velocity (m/s)

A = acceleration (m/s^)

T = time (s)

27

## What is the involving frequency and wavelength

### Wave speed = frequency x wavelength

28

## How can you increase the strength of a an electromagnet

###
Adding more turns

Increasing the current

Adding an iron core

29

## What is stopping distance

### Breaking distance + thinking distance

30

## What is the equation for weight

### Weight = mass x gravity

31

## What is the equation for momentum

### Mass x velocity

32

## How to find out the direction of the field lines in a wire

###
Right hand grip rule.

Thumb points in direction of current, fingers wrap around the direction of field lines.

33

## What is an electromagnet

### A wire around a nail connected to a battery

34

## What are transverse waves

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The oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy.

For example, water.

The crest is the top curve and the trough is the bottom curve.

The amplitude is from the centre to either a through or a crest.

The wavelength is from either a trough to a trough or crest to crest.

35

## What is the difference between a scalar and a vector

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Scalar = measurements have only have magnitude

Vector = measurements that have magnitude and direction

36

## What is inertia

### The tendency for objects to continue at the same speed in the same direction.

37