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Flashcards in Paper 2 Deck (37):
1

What are Newton’s 3 laws

1 = an object will remain stationary or moving at a constant speed and direction, unless a resultant force acts upon it.

2 = the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the resultant force acting in it (F=ma).

3 = for every force there is an equal and opposite force.

2

What are contact and non-contact forces

Contact - when an object strikes another one (air resistance, friction)
Non contact - the opposite (magnetic force)

3

What is the difference between permanent and induced magnets

Permanent = magnets that have their atoms aligned all the time.

Induced = magnets that have their atoms aligned under the influence of an external magnet.

4

What is the equation involving force and distance

Work done = force x distance

5

How to increase the force in a magnetic system

Increase the current
Increase the strength of the magnet

6

Why does every car have a top speed

Because as you go faster the air resistance gets bigger up until the point where they’re equal.
At this point the forces are balanced and the car goes at a constant velocity.

7

What happens to the period of the wave as the frequency increases

It deacreases

8

What is the equation for elastic potential energy

0.5 x k x e^

0.5 x spring constant x extension^

9

What is the difference between thinking and breaking distance and what increases them.

Thinking = the distance travelled during your reaction time:
- high speed, drugs, tiredness, alcohol

Breaking = the distance travelled once your foot hits the brake:
- high speed, weather, surface of road, hot brakes, more mass

10

What is the equation for acceleration

Change in velocity / time

Or...

(End velocity - start velocity) / time

11

What happens to a current-carrying wire when placed in a magnetic field.

The magnetic field created by the current interacts with the field from the magnets and creates a force on the wire.

12

What is hookes law

The force applied to a spring is directly proportional to its extension... F=ke

13

What is reflection

When waves hit a smooth solid object they ‘bounce’ (reflect) off it.

14

What are longitudinal waves

The oscillations are parallel to the direction of energy transfer.
For example, sound waves.

They have compressions which are where the waves are close together.
They have rarefactions where the waves are spread out.

15

What is displacement

A distance

16

What do like and unlike poles do

Like poles repel
Unlike poles attract

17

What are the two suvat equations

If there’s no distance…
a = v-u / t

If there’s no time...
v^ = u^ + 2as

18

What is the equation for speed and what is difference between speed and velocity

Speed = distance / time

Velocity is just speed with a direction

19

What is a solenoid and what does its magnetic field look like

When you coil the wire.
It looks very similar to a bar magnets.

20

What is the equation that involves field strength, current and length

F = BIL
force = field strength x current x length

21

What can you say about the conservation of momentum

Momentum before = momentum after

22

What is the equation for pressure

Pressure = force / area

23

What is frequency

The number of waves passing a point each second

24

How to increase speed on a car

Use lighter materials
Make it streamlined
More powerful engine

25

Name the electromagnetic spectrum from smallest to largest

Gamma
X-rays
UV
Visible
Infrared
Microwaves
Radiowaves

26

What does everything stand for in a suvat eqation

S = distance (m)
U = start velocity (m/s)
V = end velocity (m/s)
A = acceleration (m/s^)
T = time (s)

27

What is the involving frequency and wavelength

Wave speed = frequency x wavelength

28

How can you increase the strength of a an electromagnet

Adding more turns
Increasing the current
Adding an iron core

29

What is stopping distance

Breaking distance + thinking distance

30

What is the equation for weight

Weight = mass x gravity

31

What is the equation for momentum

Mass x velocity

32

How to find out the direction of the field lines in a wire

Right hand grip rule.
Thumb points in direction of current, fingers wrap around the direction of field lines.

33

What is an electromagnet

A wire around a nail connected to a battery

34

What are transverse waves

The oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of energy.
For example, water.

The crest is the top curve and the trough is the bottom curve.
The amplitude is from the centre to either a through or a crest.
The wavelength is from either a trough to a trough or crest to crest.

35

What is the difference between a scalar and a vector

Scalar = measurements have only have magnitude
Vector = measurements that have magnitude and direction

36

What is inertia

The tendency for objects to continue at the same speed in the same direction.

37

What are the different measurements

T - 10^12
G - 10^9
M - 10^6
K - 10^3
m - 10^-3
u - 10^-6
n - 10^-9