Paper 2: Socio-cultural influences, sports psychology, health, fitness and well-being Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Paper 2: Socio-cultural influences, sports psychology, health, fitness and well-being Deck (79):
1

Aesthetic

Pleasing to the eye, a technique that looks good.

2

Ability

The physical or mental power or skill needed to do something.

3

Anabolic steroids

Banned substance enabling performers to train longer and harder, increasing aggression and muscle bulk.

4

Anxiety

The feeling or fear that we experience that something might go wrong.

5

Balanced diet

This involves taking in the right amount or level of energy that the body needs in its expenditure of energy. In other words you need to have the energy output balancing the energy input.

6

Beta blockers

A drug used to control heart rhythm and lower blood pressure.

7

Carbohydrates

The dietary compound primarily responsible for energy production. There are two forms of carbohydrates: simple sugars and complex sugars.

8

Closed skill

Skills that are performed in a predictable environment.

9

Cognitive skills

Skills that involve the intellectual ability of the performer.

10

Commercialisation

Links business and commerce into sport with a primary focus of profit and money which can lead to exploitation.

11

Complex skill

When there are many decisions to make when executing a skill.

12

Co-ordination

The ability to use different parts of the body together smoothly and efficiently.

13

Coronary Heart Disease

Where the blood vessels are narrowed and blood flow and oxygen to the heart is reduced.

14

Discrimination

The unfair treatment of individuals whereby opportunities are not available to all of the different social groups.

15

Dehydration

A harmful reduction in the amount of water lost in the body through sweating, breathing and urinating.

16

Deviance

Behaviour that goes against the moral values or laws in society and of the sport.

17

Efficient

Achieving maximum productivity with minimum wasted effort or time.

18

Energy balance

Energy input=energy expenditure. This equation must balance for your body weight to remain constant.

19

Ethnicity

A state of belonging to a specific social group with common cultural or national traditions or beliefs.

20

Etiquette

The unwritten rules of the game concerned with fair play and conduct. A convention or accepted way of behaving.

21

Exercise

Activity that requires physical effort. Usually carried out to sustain or bring about improvements to health or fitness.

22

Fatigue

Extreme tiredness.

23

Fats

A source of energy and insulation.

24

Feedback

Information about a person's performance which is used to change the performance, reinforce learning or motivate a performer.

25

Fibre

Essential to maintain the function of the digestive system, preventing constipation.

26

Fitness

A person's capacity to carry out life's activities without getting fatigued.

27

Fluent

Free flowing, smooth action which is graceful and effortless.

28

Gamesmanship

Gaining a sporting advantage by using tactics unfairly.

29

Golden triangle

Shows the relationship between sport, the media and sponsorship, representing the commercial money-making nature of sport.

30

Governing body

A committee which regulates an individual sport e.g. England Netball, Rugby Football Union, The Football Association, England Hockey, England Cricket Board and the Lawn Tennis Association.

31

Grants

Money made available to the public and voluntary sectors to help increase provision.

32

Guidance

Advice or information aimed at helping a performer.

33

Health

A complete state of physical, mental or social well-being; not merely the absence of illness or infirmity.

34

Hydration

Absorbing water.

35

Kinesthetic sense

This is the feeling or sense that we get through movement.

36

Imagery

The creation of pictures in our mind (can be referred to as mental preparation/visualisation)
External Imagery - When you picture yourself from outside your body.
Internal Imagery - When you imagine yourself actually doing the activity.

37

Long term goal

A goal which is to be achieved over a long period of time.

38

Media

The main means of mass communication.

39

Membership fees

Each member pays an annual fee in order to be a part of the club.

40

Mental preparation

Helps athletes achieve a focused, confident and trusting mindset to help them compete at their highest level.

41

Metabolism

Chemical processes in the body causing food to be used in an efficient way.

42

Minerals

Inorganic elements essential for chemical reactions in our body.

43

Motor skill

An action or task that has a target or goal and that requires voluntary body and/or limb movement to achieve this goal.

44

Obesity

Being grossly fat or overweight.

45

Open skill

When a skill is affected by the environment and requires the performer to make perceptual decisions.

46

Osteoporosis

A disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break.

47

Outcome goal

These are goals related to the end result.

48

Participation rates

This refers to the number of people within a group who are involved in sport compared with those who are not.

49

Positive thinking

This involves the performer being positive about past experiences and future efforts.

50

Perceptual skill

A complex concept that involves interpretation of stimuli.

51

Performance goal

Goals which are directly related to the performance or a technique of an activity.

52

Pre-determined

Planned and with purpose, this takes experience, is learned, knowing an end goal.

53

Protein

The building blocks for body tissue and essential for growth and repair.

54

Relaxation

Exercises to calm the mind and body.

55

Role models

A person who serves as an example of the values, attitudes and behaviours associated with a role.

56

Saturated fat

In the form of a solid and is primarily from animal sources.

57

Sedentary lifestyle

A lifestyle that involves little to no exercise, with much sitting down.

58

Selective attention

The process of focusing attention on relevant information during the execution of a skill or during a game.

59

Self esteem

Confidence in one's own worth or abilities.

60

Self talk

Talking to yourself before and during a performance.

61

Short Term goal

A goal which is to be achieved in a short space of time or even in a specific training session.

62

Simple skill

When a skill requires few judgements or decisions to be made.

63

Skill

The ability to do something well.

64

Skillful movement

A learned ability to bring about a predetermined result accomplished with maximum efficiency with a minimum outlay of time, energy or both.

65

Skills continua

A continuous line in which elements at each end are quite extreme.
(Simple--->Complex)

66

SMART

Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Recorded and Timed.

67

Sponsorship

Support provided to a club, team or individual in the form of money, equipment, kit etc.

68

Sport

This involves organised competition between individuals or teams that includes physical activities.

69

Sport England

An organisation that tries to help communities develop sporting habits for life by funding other organisations and projects, getting more people involved in sport.

70

Sportsmanship

Fair and generous behaviour showing respect towards your opponent.

71

Stimulants

A banned substance that raises levels of physiological or nervous activity in the body.

72

Subsidies

When members of the public pay a certain cost and the local authority pays the rest.

73

The National Lottery

Regarded as a grant for sport. World class performers may be funded through the lottery.

74

Type 2 Diabetes

A metabolic disorder characterised by high blood sugar, lack of insulin due to being overweight and leading a sedentary lifestyle.

75

Unsaturated fat

In the form of a liquid and comes from plant sources.

76

Violence

The intent to harm others outside the rules of the game.

77

Vitamins

Essential components of diet which are vital for energy production, metabolism and the prevention of disease.

78

Water

Crucial in the removal of waste products and for the regulation of temperature.

79

Well-being

A feeling or mental state of being contented, happy, prosperous and healthy.