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Flashcards in Paper 3 Deck (100):
1

Believed society acts like an organism, a set of parts that are interconnected and interdependent.

Parsons - organic analogy

2

Anomie (state of normlessness by society changing too quickly and norms are lost before new ones are created).

Durkheim

3

Criticises functionalism for not recognising that things that are functional for one group may not be functional for another.

Merton's internal critique of functionalism.

4

The welfare state has created a dependency culture.

Murray

5

The nuclear family is the bedrock of society.

Murray

6

Argue that New Right thinking is an attempt to justify patriarchal society.

Feminists

7

The means of production make up the economic base of society, deciding the superstructure (institutions).

Marx - economic determinism.

8

Revolution is needed to overthrow capitalism

Marx

9

Humanistic Marxism

Gramsci - hegemony

10

Structuralist Marxism

Althusser - ISAs

11

Believes the ruling class control the means of producing ideas, their ideas become dominant and and the working class consent to them - creating coercion.

Gramsci

12

Capitalism would be overthrown when economic, political and ideological structures in society were contradicted.

Althusser

13

Inequality can be tackled by working in existing power structures.

L.feminists

14

The very structure of society is based on oppression of women, revolutionary change is needed to bring about new gender roles.

R.feminists

15

Patriarchy was the first and most fundamental form of inequality.

Millet

16

Women internalise patriarchy and come to see themselves as inferior to men

Millet

17

Women bear the brunt of their husband's frustration that otherwise would be targeted at capitalist employers. Women are takers of shit.

Ansley

18

Human behaviour needs to be described by the level of cause and meaning.

Weber

19

Both structural and action approaches are needed in order to understand society.

Weber

20

Most human interaction is symbolic

Mead

21

We learn to interpret symbols through social interaction, knowledge of shared symbols and their meaning allow us to function as members of society.

Mead

22

Sees society as something that is created from the bottom up. Constructed by individual behaviour.

Garlfinkel

23

Sociologists should look at both social institutions and the social structures that influences interactions.

Giddens - structuration

24

Criticises structuration for assuming that changing the world is easy.

Marxists and feminists

25

There is a series of language, not just one, therefore no theory can claim monopoly of the truth.

Lyotard

26

Signs don't actually relate to any real things because there is no agreed definition of what is real any more.

Baudrillard

27

We consume signs - simulacra - even though they're meaningless. The inability to tell what is real from what is not.

Baudrillard - Hyper reality.

28

We've lost our ability to tell what's real, we've lost our ability to improve society.

Baurdrillard

29

Criticises Baudrillard for being too pessimistic about not being able to improve society.

Harvey

30

We're actually in a state of late or high modernity.

Giddens

31

High modernity as a juggernaut, a massive force which we can collectively try to direct but could go out of control.

Giddens

32

Experiments should tru to prove the hypothesis wrong - falsification.

Popper

33

It wasn't possible to know the absolute truth, you can't prove things are correct.

Popper

34

Science uses an accepted body of knowledge to solve puzzles - normal science.

Kuhn

35

Normal scientists have an assumed way of looking at the world, called a paradigm. Scientists are constrained by the paradigm they take for granted.

Kuhn

36

Big leaps of scientific progress come about when evidence which doesn't fit the paradigm builds up to the point it can't be ignored - scientific revolution.

Kuhn

37

Some sociological concepts weren't scientific as they couldn't possibly be proved wrong, sociology could only be a science if it made hypotheses which could be falsified.

Popper

38

Sociology doesn't have a paradigm, there isn't a consensus as to what it's about and how it's done. Therefore sociology doesn't count as a science.

Kuhn

39

Sociology should aim to discover social facts about how society works.

Comte, Durkheima dn ,arx

40

Argues there was a crucial difference between the facts discovered by research and the value judgments attached ti those facts.

Weber

41

Believed that the research process must be kept value free.

Weber

42

Value free research is impossible and undesirable

Gouldner

43

Sociology shouldn't make value judgements, it shouldn't tell policy makers how to fix society.

Weber

44

Sociology should infor, social research and worries that society may get worse if sociological theories about poverty and welfare aren't listened to.

Bauman.

45

Postmodern consumer society is marginalising the welfare state.

Bauman.

46

Scientific methods of sociological research could be used to construct oppressive metanarratives.

Lyotard

47

Modern metanarratives as leading to strict doctrine and oppression

Lyotard

48

Patriarchal society must be dismantled before women's lives can ever improve.

Firestone

49

Crime and deviance allows for social change to occur

Durkheim

50

Crime becomes dysfunctional when the level of crime is either too high (threatens social order) or too low (there's no social change)

Durkheim

51

Forms of deviance such as prostitution provide a safety valve for releasing tension without threatening social stability.

Cohen

52

From the study of american society, the vast majority do not have equal access to the means of achieving society's goals.

Merton

53

When an individual is unable to achieve society's cultural goals it causes a strain which leads to deviant behaviour.

Merton

54

Working boys have a lack of opportunities to succeed in mainstream society, largely due to cultural deprivation.

Cohen

55

There is an legitimate and illegitimate opportunity structure, the access to the illegitimate structure could be as unequal as access to the legitimate structure.

Cloward and Ohlin

56

Pointed to groups such as hippies who do not share goals of success and wealth

Taylor and Walton

57

Challenged the assumption that sociologists should focus on what causes people to act in a deviant way, but instead how they come to be labelled.

Becker

58

A deviant career in mental illness. negative labeling of being mad, is imposed on the patient by society and psychiatry, and the patient must conform to it.

Goffman

59

Primary and secondary deviance

Lemert

60

Most of the UK property law serves to keep working class people away from property and land of the rich.

Chambliss and Mankoff

61

Laws which supposedly protect the working class, e.g. health and safety ;aws, benefit the ruling class as they need healthy safe workers.

Pearce

62

Working class crimes such as burglary don't cause as much harm in society as corporate crimes.

Snider

63

Criminals are not passive individuals unable to control their economic situation as stated by Marxism. Instead crime was a conscious meaningful attempt to try and change society.

Taylor, Walton and Young

64

British policing policy needs to be centred on creating and maintaining good communication between the police and local communities.

Kinsey, Lea and Young

65

Relative deprivation is a major factor leading to crime

Lea and Young

66

Left realists have explained why some people who experience relative deprivation see crimes as a solution and others don't/

Hughes

67

There's a biological predisposition to crime in some individuals

Wilson and Herrnstein

68

Individuals commit crimes because the gains outweigh the chances of being punished.

Wilson

69

The higher the risk of going to prison the less likely people are to commit crime

Murray

70

Zero tolerance policy

Wilson and Kelling

71

Didn't find any evidence that broken windows led to crime

Matthews

72

Police racism results in higher suspicion against black people in general.

Bowling and Philips

73

Police were institutionally racist, the CJS accused of favouring white middle class defendants.

Macpherson report

74

Black youths dont actually commit more crimes that other ethnic groups, they've been labelled as criminals by modern society.

Hall and Gilroy

75

Black people are victims of racist stereotypes that paint them as more criminal than other groups.Resulting in higher convinction of black youths by the CJS

Gilroy

76

Due to the media, working class suffer most from relative deprivation. Making them more likely to turn to crime.

Young

77

Men commit more crime because they have more opportunity to do so, e.g. more access to corporate crime

Marsh

78

Chivalry thesis makes men be protective of women, due to socialisation

Pollack

79

Sex role theory, boys are socialised to be more aggressive

Heidensohn

80

Young women are closely watched by their families and given less freedom outside the home, reducing opportunities for crime.

Abbott and Wallace

81

Women have less opportunity to commit crime, due to living in a patriarchal society.

Marsh

82

liberation thesis - as women become more liberated due to society becoming less patriarchal - women crime rates increase.

Adler

83

Crime has become globalised, nature of globalisation has allowed transnational organised crime to grow.

Held

84

Green criminology - effects of crime on people animals and the environment

Lynch

85

We are living in a global risk society, due to green crimes being on a global scale.

Beck

86

Primary and secondary green crime

South

87

Media helps to create the deviance it predicts or manipulates

Cohen - amplification of deviance

88

Attempts to increase social control can create more deviance.

Cohen

89

Moral panics , mods vs rockers

Cohen

90

Newer forms of media, e.g. the internet, have created crimes that were not possible before.

Jewkes

91

Perceived risk of being a victim of crime is amplified by over reporting by the media.

Cohen

92

Public are now getting more used to moral panics, so people aren't as likely to panic

McRobbie and Thorton

93

Fear of crime is used to control women, in to not acting to provocatively.

Stanko

94

A victim is a social construct, society is willing to see certain people as victims.

Christie

95

Positivist victimology is interested in how some people are more likely to become victims than others.

Miers

96

Groups who are more likely to be oppressed are also more likely to be victims of crime, this is called structural powerlessness.

Mawby and Walklate

97

Situational crime approaches dont always reduce crime but instead displace it.

Chaiken

98

Prisons exert their disciplinary power by using surveillance to create self surveillance.

Focault

99

Police showed clear signs of racism

Macpherson report

100

Public punishments were good for society by creating unity and consensus.

Durkheim