Flashcards in Paper 3 Deck (100):
Believed society acts like an organism, a set of parts that are interconnected and interdependent.
Parsons - organic analogy
Anomie (state of normlessness by society changing too quickly and norms are lost before new ones are created).
Criticises functionalism for not recognising that things that are functional for one group may not be functional for another.
Merton's internal critique of functionalism.
The welfare state has created a dependency culture.
The nuclear family is the bedrock of society.
Argue that New Right thinking is an attempt to justify patriarchal society.
The means of production make up the economic base of society, deciding the superstructure (institutions).
Marx - economic determinism.
Revolution is needed to overthrow capitalism
Gramsci - hegemony
Althusser - ISAs
Believes the ruling class control the means of producing ideas, their ideas become dominant and and the working class consent to them - creating coercion.
Capitalism would be overthrown when economic, political and ideological structures in society were contradicted.
Inequality can be tackled by working in existing power structures.
The very structure of society is based on oppression of women, revolutionary change is needed to bring about new gender roles.
Patriarchy was the first and most fundamental form of inequality.
Women internalise patriarchy and come to see themselves as inferior to men
Women bear the brunt of their husband's frustration that otherwise would be targeted at capitalist employers. Women are takers of shit.
Human behaviour needs to be described by the level of cause and meaning.
Both structural and action approaches are needed in order to understand society.
Most human interaction is symbolic
We learn to interpret symbols through social interaction, knowledge of shared symbols and their meaning allow us to function as members of society.
Sees society as something that is created from the bottom up. Constructed by individual behaviour.
Sociologists should look at both social institutions and the social structures that influences interactions.
Giddens - structuration
Criticises structuration for assuming that changing the world is easy.
Marxists and feminists
There is a series of language, not just one, therefore no theory can claim monopoly of the truth.
Signs don't actually relate to any real things because there is no agreed definition of what is real any more.
We consume signs - simulacra - even though they're meaningless. The inability to tell what is real from what is not.
Baudrillard - Hyper reality.
We've lost our ability to tell what's real, we've lost our ability to improve society.
Criticises Baudrillard for being too pessimistic about not being able to improve society.
We're actually in a state of late or high modernity.
High modernity as a juggernaut, a massive force which we can collectively try to direct but could go out of control.
Experiments should tru to prove the hypothesis wrong - falsification.
It wasn't possible to know the absolute truth, you can't prove things are correct.
Science uses an accepted body of knowledge to solve puzzles - normal science.
Normal scientists have an assumed way of looking at the world, called a paradigm. Scientists are constrained by the paradigm they take for granted.
Big leaps of scientific progress come about when evidence which doesn't fit the paradigm builds up to the point it can't be ignored - scientific revolution.
Some sociological concepts weren't scientific as they couldn't possibly be proved wrong, sociology could only be a science if it made hypotheses which could be falsified.
Sociology doesn't have a paradigm, there isn't a consensus as to what it's about and how it's done. Therefore sociology doesn't count as a science.
Sociology should aim to discover social facts about how society works.
Comte, Durkheima dn ,arx
Argues there was a crucial difference between the facts discovered by research and the value judgments attached ti those facts.
Believed that the research process must be kept value free.
Value free research is impossible and undesirable
Sociology shouldn't make value judgements, it shouldn't tell policy makers how to fix society.
Sociology should infor, social research and worries that society may get worse if sociological theories about poverty and welfare aren't listened to.
Postmodern consumer society is marginalising the welfare state.
Scientific methods of sociological research could be used to construct oppressive metanarratives.
Modern metanarratives as leading to strict doctrine and oppression
Patriarchal society must be dismantled before women's lives can ever improve.
Crime and deviance allows for social change to occur
Crime becomes dysfunctional when the level of crime is either too high (threatens social order) or too low (there's no social change)
Forms of deviance such as prostitution provide a safety valve for releasing tension without threatening social stability.
From the study of american society, the vast majority do not have equal access to the means of achieving society's goals.
When an individual is unable to achieve society's cultural goals it causes a strain which leads to deviant behaviour.
Working boys have a lack of opportunities to succeed in mainstream society, largely due to cultural deprivation.
There is an legitimate and illegitimate opportunity structure, the access to the illegitimate structure could be as unequal as access to the legitimate structure.
Cloward and Ohlin
Pointed to groups such as hippies who do not share goals of success and wealth
Taylor and Walton
Challenged the assumption that sociologists should focus on what causes people to act in a deviant way, but instead how they come to be labelled.
A deviant career in mental illness. negative labeling of being mad, is imposed on the patient by society and psychiatry, and the patient must conform to it.
Primary and secondary deviance
Most of the UK property law serves to keep working class people away from property and land of the rich.
Chambliss and Mankoff
Laws which supposedly protect the working class, e.g. health and safety ;aws, benefit the ruling class as they need healthy safe workers.
Working class crimes such as burglary don't cause as much harm in society as corporate crimes.
Criminals are not passive individuals unable to control their economic situation as stated by Marxism. Instead crime was a conscious meaningful attempt to try and change society.
Taylor, Walton and Young
British policing policy needs to be centred on creating and maintaining good communication between the police and local communities.
Kinsey, Lea and Young
Relative deprivation is a major factor leading to crime
Lea and Young
Left realists have explained why some people who experience relative deprivation see crimes as a solution and others don't/
There's a biological predisposition to crime in some individuals
Wilson and Herrnstein
Individuals commit crimes because the gains outweigh the chances of being punished.
The higher the risk of going to prison the less likely people are to commit crime
Zero tolerance policy
Wilson and Kelling
Didn't find any evidence that broken windows led to crime
Police racism results in higher suspicion against black people in general.
Bowling and Philips
Police were institutionally racist, the CJS accused of favouring white middle class defendants.
Black youths dont actually commit more crimes that other ethnic groups, they've been labelled as criminals by modern society.
Hall and Gilroy
Black people are victims of racist stereotypes that paint them as more criminal than other groups.Resulting in higher convinction of black youths by the CJS
Due to the media, working class suffer most from relative deprivation. Making them more likely to turn to crime.
Men commit more crime because they have more opportunity to do so, e.g. more access to corporate crime
Chivalry thesis makes men be protective of women, due to socialisation
Sex role theory, boys are socialised to be more aggressive
Young women are closely watched by their families and given less freedom outside the home, reducing opportunities for crime.
Abbott and Wallace
Women have less opportunity to commit crime, due to living in a patriarchal society.
liberation thesis - as women become more liberated due to society becoming less patriarchal - women crime rates increase.
Crime has become globalised, nature of globalisation has allowed transnational organised crime to grow.
Green criminology - effects of crime on people animals and the environment
We are living in a global risk society, due to green crimes being on a global scale.
Primary and secondary green crime
Media helps to create the deviance it predicts or manipulates
Cohen - amplification of deviance
Attempts to increase social control can create more deviance.
Moral panics , mods vs rockers
Newer forms of media, e.g. the internet, have created crimes that were not possible before.
Perceived risk of being a victim of crime is amplified by over reporting by the media.
Public are now getting more used to moral panics, so people aren't as likely to panic
McRobbie and Thorton
Fear of crime is used to control women, in to not acting to provocatively.
A victim is a social construct, society is willing to see certain people as victims.
Positivist victimology is interested in how some people are more likely to become victims than others.
Groups who are more likely to be oppressed are also more likely to be victims of crime, this is called structural powerlessness.
Mawby and Walklate
Situational crime approaches dont always reduce crime but instead displace it.
Prisons exert their disciplinary power by using surveillance to create self surveillance.
Police showed clear signs of racism