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Flashcards in Paper 8 Deck (29):
1

Complete the table (X what each organism has; N is what they dont have)

Chloroplasts:Cytoplasm:Cell wall: nucl:

Fungus. X

Bacterium

Virus

Chloroplasts:Cytoplasm:Cell wall: nucl:

Fungus. N X X X

Bacterium. N X. X. N

Virus. N. N. N. N

2

Suggest what is meant by the term endangered species

Lower numbers/risk of extinction

3

What is the function of the pulmonary artery?

Blood:/alveoli

Obtain oxygen/oxygenated/release carbon dioxide/deoxygenated

4

Describe and explain the biological consequences of smoking on the human heart
(5 marks)

Blockage/narrowing

Blood vessels/artery

Fat/fatty deposit/cholesterol

The less oxygen/less glucose

Anaerobic respiration causes buildup in lactic acid

Heart attack/heart disease

Nicotine/carbon monoxide

increased heart rate up/high blood pressure

5

In the process that produces lactic acid

Anaerobic respiration

6

An athlete breathes deeply, this can help reduce the buildup of lactic acid in muscle cells while running. Suggest why.

More oxygen

More Aerobic respiration

7

Complete the table by writing the change and effect in any empty slot

Change: Effect:
More sweat released.

More adrenaline released

More blood flow to skin

Change: Effect:
More sweat released. Heat loss

More adrenaline released. Increase heart rate

vasodilation More blood flow to skin

8

Complete the table

Plant part: Stimulus: Response:
Stem. Light. P. phototropism

Root. Light

N. geotropism

Plant part: Stimulus: Response:

Stem. Light. P. phototropism

Root. Light. N. phototropism

Stem/shoot Gravity N. geotropism

9

Explain why it is an advantage for plant stems to show positive phototropism (2 marks)

Obtain light

Photosynthesis

Make glucose/starch/sugar/carbohydrate

10

Complete the passage:

A…...from a body cell was taken from a cloned cat's mother was put into…….Egg cell. The egg cell was then given an electric shock to make it divide by the process of…….The resulting ball of cells, called an ……., Was placed into the…….Of another cat (surrogate mother) and after some time the cloned cat was born. The cloned cat is known as the clone because she is genetically…..to her mother.

Nucleus

Empty/ enucleated

Mitosis

Embryo

Uterus/womb

Identical

11

A cat was clones

Use the symbols XX or XY to complete the table to show the sex chromosomes of each of the animals used in cloning the cat

Cloned cat's mother: XX

The surrogate mother:

The cloned cat:

Cloned cat's mother: XX

The surrogate mother: XX

The cloned cat: XX

12

Suggest one way in which the pollen from wind pollinated flowers is different from the pollen in insect pollinated flowers

Light/smaller/large quantities/lights/larger surface area

13

Explain how water is absorbed into a root hair cell from the soil (2 marks)

Osmosis

High concentration of water to low concentration of water

selectively permeable membrane

14

Where is bile made

Gall bladder

15

Explain how bile is involved in digestion (4 marks)

Emulsifiers/emulsification of fat/lipids

Large surface area

Enzyme/lipase

neutralises acid/raises PH to optimum for enzymes

16

In which part of the digestive system are most villi found

Small intestine

17

Explain how the structure of a villus is adapted for the absorption of the products of digestion (4 marks)

Large surface area/microbially

CAPILLARIES

Blood moves/circulates/maintain concentration gradient

Walls single cell thick/thin walls

Capillaries close to wall

Lacteal/lymph vessel

Diffusion

18

Describe one way in which transpiration is important to plants

Water transport/water absorption

Turgidity/support

19

Explain how an increase to light intensity affects the rate of transpiration (2 marks)

Stomata/pores open

Increase (transpiration)/more water loss

20

Explain why transfer of energy between primary and secondary consumers could never be 100% efficient (4 marks)

Energy lost/used up/respiration/heat/movement/excretion/ Egestion/ uneaten/indigestible/death

21

Suggest how resistance to cold would help the growth of a plant

Stills grows in cold/ longer growing period

22

Suggest how resistant to fungal infection would help the growth of a plant (2 marks)

No injections that disease/not killed

better growth/Yield

No fungus spread to other plants

23

Describe the procedure of genetic modification. (5 marks)

Gene/DNA/allele

Cut

Restriction enzyme

Plasmid

Same restriction

Ligase

Join/stick

Recombinant DNA

Vector

Gene gun

24

Give key reason using micropropogation in the commercial production of plants

More plants/lots of plants

Quicker/faster

Same/identical/clones

25

The passage below describes what happens in the body after someone needs a meal.

Complete the passage

After a person eats a meal the blood glucose concentration rises. The rise in glucose results in the release of the hormone…….From cells in…… This hormone travels in the…….To a target organ called the…….Here, access glucose is converted to a large insoluble carbohydrate cooled it…….And stored

Insulin

Pancreas

Blood

Liver

Glycogen

26

Why is protein important for growth

Amino acids/new cells/enzymes/tissues/muscles/Bones/repair

27

In a fish farm, suggest why it is important that the water can circulate through the cages

Remove waste/faeces/urine

IGNORE: clean/disease/pollution/Oxygen/prevent stagnation/respiration

28

Suggest why farmers supply small amounts of food at regular intervals into a fish farm

Less wasted/all eaten/prevent oxygen depletion/less decomposition/less bacterial growth

29

Competition between members of the same species of fish can register you at the fish and fish farms. Competition between different species and also to steal the fish.

Describe ways in which fish farmers can reduce these types of competition.

Intraspecific: no overcrowding/ increase cage size/separate sizes/ages
ignore: gender/supply enough food

Inter specific: one species/type of fish per cage/stop other fish entering the cage

By covering cage/size of mash/use different cages