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Flashcards in Paper One: Physical Deck (21)
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1
Q

List 2 features of a tropical storm

A

Eyewall, Eye

2
Q

What Scale are storms measured with?

A

Saffir simpson scale

3
Q

How do tropical storms lose energy?

A

If they go over land or cooler water

4
Q

Constructive plate boundary

A

A constructive plate boundary, sometimes called a divergent plate margin, occurs when plates move apart. Volcanoes are formed as magma wells up to fill the gap, and eventually new crust is formed.

5
Q

2 primary effects of tropical storms

A

Fatalities, Buildings destroyed

6
Q

2 Secondary effects of tropical storms

A

Homelessness, Poverty

7
Q

Details about the eye of a tropical storm

A

Can be up to 50km, no rain, light wind speeds.

8
Q

What is the force that causes tropical storms to spin?

A

The coriolis force

9
Q

Types of plate boundaries

A

Destructive, Constructive, Conservative, Collision

10
Q

How can tropical storms be predicted?

A

Use of satellites, weather instruments and computer based prediction.

11
Q

What are some examples of immediate responses to tropical storms?

A

Immediate: Evacuation, Rescue, Provision of supplies and needs, Burial for fatalities, Aid

12
Q

What are some long term responses to tropical storms?

A

Repairing damage, economic recovery, forecasting and prediction improvements

13
Q

Protection from tropical storms?

A

Building regulations
Stilts
Flood defenses

14
Q

Difference between focus and epicentre

A

focus: where the pressure is released underground
epicentre: the point on earths crust that is directly above the centre

14
Q

Earthquake prediction preparation protection

A

Monitoring seismic waves
Building regulations (deep foundation, sway + flex)
Early warning systems
Trained army professionals

15
Q

What are some positives of volcanoes?

A

They attract tourists
Geothermal energy can be used for electricity.
Volcano ash creates well fertilised land for crops

16
Q

What are some differences between composite and shield volcanoes?

A

Composite volcanoes have acidic, viscous lava. Shield volcanoes have standard, runny lava.
Composite volcanoes are formed of ash and lava layers, whereas shield volcanoes are just lava.
Composite volcanoes are steep and shield volcanoes are flat due to lava flowing for different distances before solidifying.

17
Q

How is a volcano monitored?

A

Seismometers - Measure earthquakes near an eruption
Tiltmeters - Monitor landscape changes. Volcanoes tend to swell before eruption.
Measuring volcano temperature

18
Q

What plate boundary are composite volcanoes formed on?

A

Destructive plate boundaries, in which two plates converge and the denser oceanic plate subducts, forcing up magma

19
Q

What plate boundary are Shield volcanoes formed on?

A

Constructive plate boundaries. As the plates move apart magma wells up and forms a volcano.

20
Q

How Do Spits or Bars form?

A

When the shape of the coastline changes and longshore drift is occurring, sand continues to be deposited off the coast forming a spit. If prevailing wind direction changes the spit will have a hooked end. They can be secured by Marram Grass. Bars happen when a spit grows across a bay.